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IDProjectCategoryView StatusLast Update
0002087GeoSetterUser Interfacepublic2020-04-21 07:55
ReporterMalcolm_Ferguson Assigned To 
PrioritynormalSeverityminorReproducibilityalways
Status newResolutionopen 
Product Version 
Target VersionFixed in Version 
Summary0002087: Error getting timezone info
DescriptionI get an error when trying to retrieve timezone information from the web for coordinates in Tomsk.
Steps To Reproduce1) Select an image with coordinates such as:
56°28'58.3882" N 84°57'13.7064" E
Lat: 56.48288561 / Long: 84.95380732

2) Hit Ctrl+E to edit data and select the date tab

3) In the "Timezone" box, hit the "Get From Web" button

=> See the error
Additional InformationI have to manually choose the "(UTC +07:00) Asia / Novosibirsk" timezone, although this is just an approximation that is currently the same.
TagsNo tags attached.

Activities

Malcolm_Ferguson

2020-04-09 06:32

reporter  

Tomsk timezone error.png (317,717 bytes)

heiko

2020-04-09 20:23

developer   ~0003800

is this a permanent problem? I've just tried it and all works without problems.

heiko

2020-04-16 23:44

developer   ~0003803

does the problem still exists? or can I close this issue?

Malcolm_Ferguson

2020-04-19 15:57

reporter   ~0003806

Yes, it's still a problem. I'm attaching another screenshot after reproducing it a moment ago.

Tomsk Timezone Error-2.png (275,254 bytes)

heiko

2020-04-20 22:33

developer   ~0003807

with the coordinates of your image I can reproduce this error. With the following api call

http://api.geonames.org/timezone?lat=56.485325&lng=84.945053&username=geosetter&style=full

you get the following timezone data from geonames:

<geonames>
<timezone tzversion="tzdata2019c">
<countryCode>RU</countryCode>
<countryName>Russia</countryName>
<lat>56.485325</lat>
<lng>84.945053</lng>
<timezoneId>Asia/Tomsk</timezoneId>
<dstOffset>7.0</dstOffset>
<gmtOffset>7.0</gmtOffset>
<rawOffset>7.0</rawOffset>
<time>2020-04-21 03:15</time>
<sunrise>2020-04-21 05:59</sunrise>
<sunset>2020-04-21 20:39</sunset>
</timezone>
</geonames>

There you see that the timezoneId is "Asia/Tomsk" and this entry is not available in the timezone database which is used from GeoSetter. If I downlaod the latest version of this database and copy it in the GeoSetter directory all works fine for me, but I don't know if this actual database will work without problems.

If you want to try this goto the directory "%ProgramFiles(x86)%\GeoSetter\tzdata" and make a backup of the file "europe". Then copy the file "europe" from the attachment into this directory. But as I said, I don't know if there will be any other problems if you do this.

@Friedemann: Perhaps you should update the tzdata database in the next release

europe (176,194 bytes)
# tzdb data for Europe and environs

# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.

# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.

# From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10):
#
# Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
# Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
#
# Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
# for time zone data was the International Air Transport
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
# of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
# IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
#
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
#
# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
# entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
#
# Other sources occasionally used include:
#
#	Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
#	Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
#	which I found in the UCLA library.
#
#	William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
#	<http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf>
#	[PDF] (1914-03)
#
#	Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
#	<https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.  He writes:
#	"It is requested that corrections and additions to these tables
#	may be sent to Mr. John Milne, Royal Geographical Society,
#	Savile Row, London."  Nowadays please email them to tz@iana.org.
#
#	Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919.
#	This Russian-language source was consulted by Vladimir Karpinsky; see
#	https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-August/021320.html
#	The full Russian citation is:
#	Бялокоз, Евгений Людвигович. Новый счет времени в течении суток
#	введенный декретом Совета народных комиссаров для всей России с 1-го
#	июля 1919 г. / Изд. 2-е Междуведомственной комиссии. - Петроград:
#	Десятая гос. тип., 1919.
#	http://resolver.gpntb.ru/purl?docushare/dsweb/Get/Resource-2011/Byalokoz__E.L.__Novyy__schet__vremeni__v__techenie__sutok__izd__2(1).pdf
#
#	Brazil's Divisão Serviço da Hora (DSHO),
#	History of Summer Time
#	<http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm>
#	(1998-09-21, in Portuguese)
#
# I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
# the rest are variants of the "xMT" pattern for a city's mean time,
# or are from other sources.  Corrections are welcome!
#                   std  dst  2dst
#                   LMT             Local Mean Time
#       -4:00       AST  ADT        Atlantic
#        0:00       GMT  BST  BDST  Greenwich, British Summer
#        0:00       GMT  IST        Greenwich, Irish Summer
#        0:00       WET  WEST WEMT  Western Europe
#        0:19:32.13 AMT* NST*       Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937)
#        1:00       BST             British Standard (1968-1971)
#        1:00       IST  GMT        Irish Standard (1968-) with winter DST
#        1:00       CET  CEST CEMT  Central Europe
#        1:00:14    SET             Swedish (1879-1899)
#        1:36:34    RMT* LST*       Riga, Latvian Summer (1880-1926)*
#        2:00       EET  EEST       Eastern Europe
#        3:00       MSK  MSD  MDST* Moscow

# From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04), re EEC/EC/EU members:
# The original six: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
# Luxembourg, the Netherlands.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for
# entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%
# on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous
# referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.
# Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)
# ...
# Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT.
# I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards.
# ...
# There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules].
# A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact
# national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the
# different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed
# in the Directive.


###############################################################################

# Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)

# From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06):
#
# On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
# historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
# and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph
# of the text said:
#
# 'An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
# beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude
# was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed
# this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They
# made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,
# but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking
# along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
#
# I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
# position is 51° 28' 30" N, 0° 18' 45" W. The longitude should
# be within about ±2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
#
# [This yields STDOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]

# From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
#
# Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
# The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
# and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
# The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)
# and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
# The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
# in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
# (though not all) railways used London time.  On 1847-09-22 the
# Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
# adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it.
# The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian,
# and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many
# railways as using GMT.  By 1855 the vast majority of public
# clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock
# on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
# one for local time and one for GMT).  The last major holdout was the legal
# system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading
# to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.
# The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition
# of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02.
#
# In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single
# transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01.  We don't know as much
# about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.

# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-19):
# The ancients had no need for daylight saving, as they kept time
# informally or via hours whose length depended on the time of year.
# Daylight saving time in its modern sense was invented by the
# New Zealand entomologist George Vernon Hudson (1867-1946),
# whose day job as a postal clerk led him to value
# after-hours daylight in which to pursue his research.
# In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society
# that proposed a two-hour daylight-saving shift.  See:
# Hudson GV. On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30°.
# Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 1895;28:734
# http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_28/rsnz_28_00_006110.html
# Although some interest was expressed in New Zealand, his proposal
# did not find its way into law and eventually it was almost forgotten.
#
# In England, DST was independently reinvented by William Willett (1857-1915),
# a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society
# who circulated a pamphlet "The Waste of Daylight" (1907)
# that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,
# and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.
# A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,
# but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests.
# Later editions of the pamphlet proposed one-hour summer time, and
# it was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916.
# See: Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18).
# A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in
# a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular
# subscription and open to the public.  On the south face of the monolith,
# designed by G. W. Miller, is the William Willett Memorial Sundial,
# which is permanently set to Summer Time.

# From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28):
# It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of
# summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country
# between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which
# plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the
# foundations of civilization throughout the world.
#	-- "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly;
#	republished in Finest Hour (Spring 2002) 1(114):26
#	https://www.winstonchurchill.org/publications/finest-hour/finest-hour-114/a-silent-toast-to-william-willett-by-winston-s-churchill

# From Paul Eggert (2015-08-08):
# The OED Supplement says that the English originally said "Daylight Saving"
# when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this
# term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the
# proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using "Summer".
# The term "Summer Time" was introduced by Herbert Samuel, Home Secretary; see:
# Viscount Samuel. Leisure in a Democracy. Cambridge University Press
# ISBN 978-1-107-49471-8 (1949, reissued 2015), p 8.

# From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19):
# A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's
# known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.

# Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed)
# From: Jonathan Leffler
# [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.
# If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in
# politics making a fortune, not computing.

# From Chris Carrier (1996-06-14):
# I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the
# acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time.  Look for the published
# time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and
# if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T."

# From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02):
# ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the
# main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516)
# agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945).

# From Joseph S. Myers (2000-10-03):
# On 18th April 1941, Sir Stephen Tallents of the BBC wrote to Sir
# Alexander Maxwell of the Home Office asking whether there was any
# official designation; the reply of the 21st was that there wasn't
# but he couldn't think of anything better than the "Double British
# Summer Time" that the BBC had been using informally.
# https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/bbc-19410418.png
# https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ho-19410421.png

# From Sir Alexander Maxwell in the above-mentioned letter (1941-04-21):
# [N]o official designation has as far as I know been adopted for the time
# which is to be introduced in May....
# I cannot think of anything better than "Double British Summer Time"
# which could not be said to run counter to any official description.

# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
# Howse writes (p 157) 'DBST' too, but 'BDST' seems to have been common
# and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first,
# so we use 'BDST'.

# Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length
# the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.
# Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating
# and extending this list, which can be found in
# https://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/

# From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):
#
# The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;
# see Lord Tanlaw's speech
# https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo970611/text/70611-10.htm#70611-10_head0
# (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976).

# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
#
# For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948.
#
# Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger
# are incorrect:
#     * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until
#	1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.
# Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
#     * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1.
# It actually just had one transition.
#     * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II.
# Actually, it conformed to Britain.
#     * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18.
# Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time.
# Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change).
#
# Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger:
#     * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT
#	to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to
#	conform with Great Britain.
# S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.
#
# The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful;
# we'll ignore it for now.
#     * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00.

# From Paul Eggert (2017-12-04):
#
# Dunsink Observatory (8 km NW of Dublin's center) was to Dublin as
# Greenwich was to London.  For example:
#
#   "Timeball on the ballast office is down.  Dunsink time."
#   -- James Joyce, Ulysses
#
# The abbreviation DMT stood for "Dublin Mean Time" or "Dunsink Mean Time";
# this being Ireland, opinions differed.
#
# Whitman says Dublin/Dunsink Mean Time was UT-00:25:21, which agrees
# with measurements of recent visitors to the Meridian Room of Dunsink
# Observatory; see Malone D. Dunsink and timekeeping. 2016-01-24.
# <https://www.maths.tcd.ie/~dwmalone/time/dunsink.html>.  Malone
# writes that the Nautical Almanac listed UT-00:25:22 until 1896, when
# it moved to UT-00:25:21.1 (I confirmed that the 1893 edition used
# the former and the 1896 edition used the latter).  Evidently the
# news of this change propagated slowly, as Milne 1899 still lists
# UT-00:25:22 and cites the International Telegraph Bureau.  As it is
# not clear that there was any practical significance to the change
# from UT-00:25:22 to UT-00:25:21.1 in civil timekeeping, omit this
# transition for now and just use the latter value, omitting its
# fraction since our format cannot represent fractions.

# "Countess Markievicz ... claimed that the [1916] abolition of Dublin Mean Time
# was among various actions undertaken by the 'English' government that
# would 'put the whole country into the SF (Sinn Féin) camp'.  She claimed
# Irish 'public feeling (was) outraged by forcing of English time on us'."
# -- Parsons M. Dublin lost its time zone - and 25 minutes - after 1916 Rising.
# Irish Times 2014-10-27.
# https://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/dublin-lost-its-time-zone-and-25-minutes-after-1916-rising-1.1977411

# From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26):
# Irish laws are available online at <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie>.
# These include various relating to legal time, for example:
#
# ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html
#
# ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html
# ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html
#
# ZZSI11Y1961.html ZZSI232Y1961.html ZZSI182Y1962.html
# ZZSI167Y1963.html ZZSI257Y1964.html ZZSI198Y1967.html
# ZZA23Y1968.html ZZA17Y1971.html
#
# ZZSI67Y1981.html ZZSI212Y1982.html ZZSI45Y1986.html
# ZZSI264Y1988.html ZZSI52Y1990.html ZZSI371Y1992.html
# ZZSI395Y1994.html ZZSI484Y1997.html ZZSI506Y2001.html
#
# [These are all relative to the root, e.g., the first is
# <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZA13Y1923.html>.]
#
# (These are those I found, but there could be more.  In any case these
# should allow various updates to the comments in the europe file to cover
# the laws applicable in Ireland.)
#
# (Note that the time in the Republic of Ireland since 1968 has been defined
# in terms of standard time being GMT+1 with a period of winter time when it
# is GMT, rather than standard time being GMT with a period of summer time
# being GMT+1.)

# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28):
# Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31)
# reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time
# (CT), equivalent to French civil time.
# Julian Hill (<news:36118128.5A14@virgin.net>, 1998-09-30) reports that
# trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door)
# and Frethun run in CT.
# My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities,
# the French concession operators and the British civil authorities,
# and that the time depends on who you're talking to.
# If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason,
# I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST.
# This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST.

# From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02):
# The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94,
# which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive No. 94/21/EC.
# Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate
# regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of
# Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is
# "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST".
#
# From Paul Eggert (2017-12-07):
# The 1996 anonymous contributor's goal was to determine the correct
# abbreviation for summer time in Dublin and so the contributor
# focused on the "IST", not on the "Irish Summer Time".  Though the
# "IST" was correct, the "Irish Summer Time" appears to have been an
# error, as Ireland's Standard Time (Amendment) Act, 1971 states that
# standard time in Ireland remains at UT +01 and is observed in
# summer, and that Greenwich mean time is observed in winter.  (Thanks
# to Derick Rethans for pointing out the error.)  That is, when
# Ireland amended the 1968 act that established UT +01 as Irish
# Standard Time, it left standard time unchanged and established GMT
# as a negative daylight saving time in winter.  So, in this database
# IST stands for Irish Summer Time for timestamps before 1968, and for
# Irish Standard Time after that.  See:
# http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1971/act/17/enacted/en/print

# Michael Deckers (2017-06-01) gave the following URLs for Ireland's
# Summer Time Act, 1925 and Summer Time Orders, 1926 and 1947:
# http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1925/act/8/enacted/en/print
# http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1926/sro/919/made/en/print
# http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1947/sro/71/made/en/print

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# Summer Time Act, 1916
Rule	GB-Eire	1916	only	-	May	21	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358
Rule	GB-Eire	1917	only	-	Apr	 8	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1917	only	-	Sep	17	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274
Rule	GB-Eire	1918	only	-	Mar	24	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1918	only	-	Sep	30	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297
Rule	GB-Eire	1919	only	-	Mar	30	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1919	only	-	Sep	29	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458
Rule	GB-Eire	1920	only	-	Mar	28	2:00s	1:00	BST
# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844
Rule	GB-Eire	1920	only	-	Oct	25	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363
Rule	GB-Eire	1921	only	-	Apr	 3	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1921	only	-	Oct	 3	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264
Rule	GB-Eire	1922	only	-	Mar	26	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1922	only	-	Oct	 8	2:00s	0	GMT
# The Summer Time Act, 1922
Rule	GB-Eire	1923	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1923	1924	-	Sep	Sun>=16	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1924	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1925	1926	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
# The Summer Time Act, 1925
Rule	GB-Eire	1925	1938	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1927	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1928	1929	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1930	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1931	1932	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1933	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1934	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1935	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1936	1937	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1938	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1939	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
# S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379
Rule	GB-Eire	1939	only	-	Nov	Sun>=16	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883
Rule	GB-Eire	1940	only	-	Feb	Sun>=23	2:00s	1:00	BST
# S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476
Rule	GB-Eire	1941	only	-	May	Sun>=2	1:00s	2:00	BDST
Rule	GB-Eire	1941	1943	-	Aug	Sun>=9	1:00s	1:00	BST
# S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506
Rule	GB-Eire	1942	1944	-	Apr	Sun>=2	1:00s	2:00	BDST
# S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932
Rule	GB-Eire	1944	only	-	Sep	Sun>=16	1:00s	1:00	BST
# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312
Rule	GB-Eire	1945	only	-	Apr	Mon>=2	1:00s	2:00	BDST
Rule	GB-Eire	1945	only	-	Jul	Sun>=9	1:00s	1:00	BST
# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208
Rule	GB-Eire	1945	1946	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1946	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
# The Summer Time Act, 1947
Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Mar	16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Apr	13	1:00s	2:00	BDST
Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Aug	10	1:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Nov	 2	2:00s	0	GMT
# Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495)
Rule	GB-Eire	1948	only	-	Mar	14	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1948	only	-	Oct	31	2:00s	0	GMT
# Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373)
Rule	GB-Eire	1949	only	-	Apr	 3	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1949	only	-	Oct	30	2:00s	0	GMT
# Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518)
# Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430)
# Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451)
Rule	GB-Eire	1950	1952	-	Apr	Sun>=14	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1950	1952	-	Oct	Sun>=21	2:00s	0	GMT
# revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925
Rule	GB-Eire	1953	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1953	1960	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1954	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1955	1956	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1957	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1958	1959	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1960	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
# Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71)
# Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465)
# Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81)
Rule	GB-Eire	1961	1963	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1961	1968	-	Oct	Sun>=23	2:00s	0	GMT
# Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101)
# Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201)
# Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148)
Rule	GB-Eire	1964	1967	-	Mar	Sun>=19	2:00s	1:00	BST
# Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117)
Rule	GB-Eire	1968	only	-	Feb	18	2:00s	1:00	BST
# The British Standard Time Act, 1968
#	(no summer time)
# The Summer Time Act, 1972
Rule	GB-Eire	1972	1980	-	Mar	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1972	1980	-	Oct	Sun>=23	2:00s	0	GMT
# Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
# Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
# Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
# Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
Rule	GB-Eire	1981	1995	-	Mar	lastSun	1:00u	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire 1981	1989	-	Oct	Sun>=23	1:00u	0	GMT
# Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
# Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
# Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
Rule	GB-Eire 1990	1995	-	Oct	Sun>=22	1:00u	0	GMT
# Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
# See EU for rules starting in 1996.
#
# Use Europe/London for Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.

# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/London	-0:01:15 -	LMT	1847 Dec  1  0:00s
			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1968 Oct 27
			 1:00	-	BST	1971 Oct 31  2:00u
			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1996
			 0:00	EU	GMT/BST
Link	Europe/London	Europe/Jersey
Link	Europe/London	Europe/Guernsey
Link	Europe/London	Europe/Isle_of_Man

# From Paul Eggert (2018-02-15):
# In January 2018 we discovered that the negative SAVE values in the
# Eire rules cause problems with tests for ICU:
# https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-January/025825.html
# and with tests for OpenJDK:
# https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-January/025822.html
#
# To work around this problem, the build procedure can translate the
# following data into two forms, one with negative SAVE values and the
# other form with a traditional approximation for Irish timestamps
# after 1971-10-31 02:00 UTC; although this approximation has tm_isdst
# flags that are reversed, its UTC offsets are correct and this often
# suffices.  This source file currently uses only nonnegative SAVE
# values, but this is intended to change and downstream code should
# not rely on it.
#
# The following is like GB-Eire and EU, except with standard time in
# summer and negative daylight saving time in winter.  It is for when
# negative SAVE values are used.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Eire	1971	only	-	Oct	31	 2:00u	-1:00	-
Rule	Eire	1972	1980	-	Mar	Sun>=16	 2:00u	0	-
Rule	Eire	1972	1980	-	Oct	Sun>=23	 2:00u	-1:00	-
Rule	Eire	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
Rule	Eire	1981	1989	-	Oct	Sun>=23	 1:00u	-1:00	-
Rule	Eire	1990	1995	-	Oct	Sun>=22	 1:00u	-1:00	-
Rule	Eire	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00u	-1:00	-

# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Dublin	-0:25:00 -	LMT	1880 Aug  2
			-0:25:21 -	DMT	1916 May 21  2:00s
			-0:25:21 1:00	IST	1916 Oct  1  2:00s
			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1921 Dec  6 # independence
			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1940 Feb 25  2:00s
			 0:00	1:00	IST	1946 Oct  6  2:00s
			 0:00	-	GMT	1947 Mar 16  2:00s
			 0:00	1:00	IST	1947 Nov  2  2:00s
			 0:00	-	GMT	1948 Apr 18  2:00s
			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1968 Oct 27
# The next line is for when negative SAVE values are used.
			 1:00	Eire	IST/GMT
# These three lines are for when SAVE values are always nonnegative.
#			 1:00	-	IST	1971 Oct 31  2:00u
#			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1996
#			 0:00	EU	GMT/IST


###############################################################################

# Europe

# The following rules are for the European Union and for its
# predecessor organization, the European Communities.
# For brevity they are called "EU rules" elsewhere in this file.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	EU	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 1:00u	1:00	S
Rule	EU	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
Rule	EU	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00u	0	-
Rule	EU	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
Rule	EU	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00u	1:00	S
Rule	EU	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
# The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002.  See:
# Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
# of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements.
# http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT

# W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.
Rule	W-Eur	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	W-Eur	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	W-Eur	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	W-Eur	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	W-Eur	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	W-Eur	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-

# Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.
# From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time.
Rule	C-Eur	1916	only	-	Apr	30	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	C-Eur	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1917	1918	-	Apr	Mon>=15	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	C-Eur	1917	1918	-	Sep	Mon>=15	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1940	only	-	Apr	 1	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	C-Eur	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1943	only	-	Mar	29	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	C-Eur	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1944	1945	-	Apr	Mon>=1	 2:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule	C-Eur	1944	only	-	Oct	 2	 2:00s	0	-
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-07-13):
#
# I found what is probably a typo of 2:00 which should perhaps be 2:00s
# in the C-Eur rule from tz database version 2008d (this part was
# corrected in version 2008d). The circumstantial evidence is simply the
# tz database itself, as seen below:
#
# Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15  0:01
#    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16  3:00
#
# Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
#    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16  3:00
#
# Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
#    1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16  2:00s
#
# Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16  3:00 0 -
# Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00s 0 -
# Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
#
# The rule line to be changed is:
#
# Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00 0 -
#
# It seems that Paris, Monaco, Rule France, Rule Belgium all agree on
# 2:00 standard time, e.g. 3:00 local time.  However there are no
# countries that use C-Eur rules in September 1945, so the only items
# affected are apparently these fictitious zones that translate acronyms
# CET and MET:
#
# Zone CET  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT
# Zone MET  1:00 C-Eur ME%sT
#
# It this is right then the corrected version would look like:
#
# Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00s 0 -
#
# A small step for mankind though 8-)
Rule	C-Eur	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	C-Eur	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	C-Eur	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-

# E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time.
Rule	E-Eur	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	E-Eur	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
Rule	E-Eur	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule	E-Eur	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
Rule	E-Eur	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	E-Eur	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 0:00	0	-


# Daylight saving time for Russia and the Soviet Union
#
# The 1917-1921 decree URLs are from Alexander Belopolsky (2016-08-23).

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Russia	1917	only	-	Jul	 1	23:00	1:00	MST  # Moscow Summer Time
#
# Decree No. 142 (1917-12-22) http://istmat.info/node/28137
Rule	Russia	1917	only	-	Dec	28	 0:00	0	MMT  # Moscow Mean Time
#
# Decree No. 497 (1918-05-30) http://istmat.info/node/30001
Rule	Russia	1918	only	-	May	31	22:00	2:00	MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time
Rule	Russia	1918	only	-	Sep	16	 1:00	1:00	MST
#
# Decree No. 258 (1919-05-29) http://istmat.info/node/37949
Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	May	31	23:00	2:00	MDST
#
Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	Jul	 1	 0:00u	1:00	MSD
Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	Aug	16	 0:00	0	MSK
#
# Decree No. 63 (1921-02-03) http://istmat.info/node/45840
Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Feb	14	23:00	1:00	MSD
#
# Decree No. 121 (1921-03-07) http://istmat.info/node/45949
Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Mar	20	23:00	2:00	+05
#
Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	1:00	MSD
Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
# Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24):
Rule	Russia	1981	1984	-	Apr	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Russia	1981	1983	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
# Act No. 967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in
# Act No. 227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14):
Rule	Russia	1984	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Russia	1985	2010	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
#
Rule	Russia	1996	2010	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
# As described below, Russia's 2014 change affects Zone data, not Rule data.

# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
# Wikipedia and other sources refer to the Act of the Council of
# Ministers of the USSR from 1988-01-04 No. 5 and the Act of the
# Council of Ministers of the USSR from 1989-03-14 No. 227.
#
# I did not find full texts of these acts.  For the 1989 one we have
# title at https://base.garant.ru/70754136/ :
# "About change in calculation of time on the territories of
# Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR and Estonian SSR, Astrakhan,
# Kaliningrad, Kirov, Kuybyshev, Ulyanovsk and Uralsk oblasts".
# And http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt appears to
# contain quotes from both acts: Since last Sunday of March 1988 rules
# of the second time belt are installed in Volgograd and Saratov
# oblasts.  Since last Sunday of March 1989:
# a) Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR, Estonian SSR, Kaliningrad oblast:
# second time belt rules without extra hour (Moscow-1);
# b) Astrakhan, Kirov, Kuybyshev, Ulyanovsk oblasts: second time belt
# rules (Moscow time)
# c) Uralsk oblast: third time belt rules (Moscow+1).

# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-27):
# Unamended version of the act of the
# Government of the Russian Federation No. 23 from 08.01.1992
# http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102014034&rdk=0
# says that every year clocks were to be moved forward on last Sunday
# of March at 2 hours and moved backwards on last Sunday of September
# at 3 hours.  It was amended in 1996 to replace September with October.

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-06-14):
# According to Kremlin press service, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
# signed a federal law "On calculation of time" on June 9, 2011.
# According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time.
#
# Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian):
# http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583
#
# Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian):
# https://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html

# From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
# Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered
# to be standard.

# These are for backward compatibility with older versions.

# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	WET		0:00	EU	WE%sT
Zone	CET		1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT
Zone	MET		1:00	C-Eur	ME%sT
Zone	EET		2:00	EU	EE%sT

# Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST
# for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.

# From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):
# The official German names ... are
#
#	Mitteleuropäische Zeit (MEZ)         = UTC+01:00
#	Mitteleuropäische Sommerzeit (MESZ)  = UTC+02:00
#
# as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz über die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
# 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....
# I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution
#
#	Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
#	Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit"
#	Postfach 3345
#	D-38023 Braunschweig
#	phone: +49 531 592-0
#
# ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB
# department for time and frequency transmission.  He explained that the
# PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as
#
#	Central European Time (CET)         = UTC+01:00
#	Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00


# Albania
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Albania	1940	only	-	Jun	16	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	3:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1943	only	-	Mar	29	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1943	only	-	Apr	10	3:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1974	only	-	May	 4	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1974	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1975	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1975	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1976	only	-	May	 2	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1976	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1977	only	-	May	 8	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1977	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1978	only	-	May	 6	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1979	only	-	May	 5	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1979	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1980	only	-	May	 3	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1980	only	-	Oct	 4	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1981	only	-	Apr	26	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1981	only	-	Sep	27	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1982	only	-	May	 2	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1982	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1983	only	-	Apr	18	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1983	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1984	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Tirane	1:19:20 -	LMT	1914
			1:00	-	CET	1940 Jun 16
			1:00	Albania	CE%sT	1984 Jul
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Andorra
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Andorra	0:06:04 -	LMT	1901
			0:00	-	WET	1946 Sep 30
			1:00	-	CET	1985 Mar 31  2:00
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Austria

# Milne says Vienna time was 1:05:21.

# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and
# 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and
# Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged"
# date of 1945-04-12 with no time.  For the 1980-04-06 transition
# Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00.  Go with the BEV,
# and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12.

# From Alois Triendl (2019-07-22):
# In 1946 the end of DST was on Monday, 7 October 1946, at 3:00 am.
# Shanks had this right.  Source: Die Weltpresse, 5. Oktober 1946, page 5.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Austria	1920	only	-	Apr	 5	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Austria	1920	only	-	Sep	13	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Austria	1946	only	-	Apr	14	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Austria	1946	only	-	Oct	 7	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Austria	1947	1948	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Austria	1947	only	-	Apr	 6	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Austria	1948	only	-	Apr	18	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Austria	1980	only	-	Apr	 6	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Austria	1980	only	-	Sep	28	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Vienna	1:05:21 -	LMT	1893 Apr
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1920
			1:00	Austria	CE%sT	1940 Apr  1  2:00s
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2  2:00s
			1:00	1:00	CEST	1945 Apr 12  2:00s
			1:00	-	CET	1946
			1:00	Austria	CE%sT	1981
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Belarus
#
# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-07-02):
# http://www.lawbelarus.com/repub/sub30/texf9611.htm
# (Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus from
# 1992-03-25 No. 157) ... says clocks were to be moved forward at 2:00
# on last Sunday of March and backward at 3:00 on last Sunday of September
# (the same as previous USSR and contemporary Russian regulations).
#
# From Yauhen Kharuzhy (2011-09-16):
# By latest Belarus government act Europe/Minsk timezone was changed to
# GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST).
#
# Sources (Russian language):
# http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html
# http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/
# https://news.tut.by/society/250578.html
#
# From Alexander Bokovoy (2014-10-09):
# Belarussian government decided against changing to winter time....
# http://eng.belta.by/all_news/society/Belarus-decides-against-adjusting-time-in-Russias-wake_i_76335.html
#
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Minsk	1:50:16 -	LMT	1880
			1:50	-	MMT	1924 May  2 # Minsk Mean Time
			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Jun 28
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Jul  3
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990
			3:00	-	MSK	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			2:00	Russia	EE%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			3:00	-	+03

# Belgium
#
# From Michael Deckers (2019-08-25):
# The exposition in the web page
# https://www.bestor.be/wiki/index.php/Voyager_dans_le_temps._L%E2%80%99introduction_de_la_norme_de_Greenwich_en_Belgique
# gives several contemporary sources from which one can conclude that
# the switch in Europe/Brussels on 1892-05-01 was from 00:17:30 to 00:00:00.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2019-08-28):
# This quote helps explain the late-1914 situation:
#   In early November 1914, the Germans imposed the time zone used in central
#   Europe and forced the inhabitants to set their watches and public clocks
#   sixty minutes ahead.  Many were reluctant to accept "German time" and
#   continued to use "Belgian time" among themselves.  Reflecting the spirit of
#   resistance that arose in the population, a song made fun of this change....
# The song ended:
#   Putting your clock forward
#   Will but hasten the happy hour
#   When we kick out the Boches!
# See: Pluvinage G. Brussels on German time. Cahiers Bruxellois -
# Brusselse Cahiers. 2014;XLVI(1E):15-38.
# https://www.cairn.info/revue-cahiers-bruxellois-2014-1E-page-15.htm
#
# Entries from 1914 through 1917 are taken from "De tijd in België"
# <https://www.astro.oma.be/GENERAL/INFO/nli001a.html>.
# Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:
#	Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
#	Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe année, 1991
#	(Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),
#	pp 8-9.
# Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for the 1918/1991 references.
# The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.
# Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Belgium	1918	only	-	Mar	 9	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1918	1919	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1920	only	-	Feb	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1920	only	-	Oct	23	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1921	only	-	Mar	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1921	only	-	Oct	25	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1922	only	-	Mar	25	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1922	1927	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1923	only	-	Apr	21	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1924	only	-	Mar	29	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1925	only	-	Apr	 4	23:00s	1:00	S
# DSH writes that a royal decree of 1926-02-22 specified the Sun following 3rd
# Sat in Apr (except if it's Easter, in which case it's one Sunday earlier),
# to Sun following 1st Sat in Oct, and that a royal decree of 1928-09-15
# changed the transition times to 02:00 GMT.
Rule	Belgium	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1928	1938	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1929	only	-	Apr	21	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1930	only	-	Apr	13	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1931	only	-	Apr	19	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1932	only	-	Apr	 3	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1933	only	-	Mar	26	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1934	only	-	Apr	 8	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1935	only	-	Mar	31	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1936	only	-	Apr	19	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1937	only	-	Apr	 4	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1938	only	-	Mar	27	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1939	only	-	Apr	16	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1939	only	-	Nov	19	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1944	only	-	Sep	17	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1946	only	-	May	19	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1946	only	-	Oct	 7	 2:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Brussels	0:17:30 -	LMT	1880
			0:17:30	-	BMT	1892 May  1 00:17:30
			0:00	-	WET	1914 Nov  8
			1:00	-	CET	1916 May  1  0:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918 Nov 11 11:00u
			0:00	Belgium	WE%sT	1940 May 20  2:00s
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Sep  3
			1:00	Belgium	CE%sT	1977
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Bosnia and Herzegovina
# See Europe/Belgrade.

# Bulgaria
#
# From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
# A document of Government of Bulgaria (No. 94/1997) says:
# EET -> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
# EETDST -> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Bulg	1979	only	-	Mar	31	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Bulg	1979	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Bulg	1980	1982	-	Apr	Sat>=1	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Bulg	1980	only	-	Sep	29	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Bulg	1981	only	-	Sep	27	 2:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Sofia	1:33:16 -	LMT	1880
			1:56:56	-	IMT	1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
			2:00	-	EET	1942 Nov  2  3:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945
			1:00	-	CET	1945 Apr  2  3:00
			2:00	-	EET	1979 Mar 31 23:00
			2:00	Bulg	EE%sT	1982 Sep 26  3:00
			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1991
			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1997
			2:00	EU	EE%sT

# Croatia
# See Europe/Belgrade.

# Cyprus
# Please see the 'asia' file for Asia/Nicosia.

# Czech Republic / Czechia
#
# From Paul Eggert (2018-04-15):
# The source for Czech data is: Kdy začíná a končí letní čas. 2018-04-15.
# https://kalendar.beda.cz/kdy-zacina-a-konci-letni-cas
# We know of no English-language name for historical Czech winter time;
# abbreviate it as "GMT", as it happened to be GMT.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Czech	1945	only	-	Apr	Mon>=1	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Czech	1945	only	-	Oct	 1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Czech	1946	only	-	May	 6	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Czech	1946	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Czech	1947	1948	-	Apr	Sun>=15	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Czech	1949	only	-	Apr	 9	2:00s	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Prague	0:57:44 -	LMT	1850
			0:57:44	-	PMT	1891 Oct    # Prague Mean Time
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 May  9
			1:00	Czech	CE%sT	1946 Dec  1  3:00
# Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST.
			1:00	-1:00	GMT	1947 Feb 23  2:00
# Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST.
#			0:00	-	GMT	1947 Feb 23  2:00
# End of rearguard section.
			1:00	Czech	CE%sT	1979
			1:00	EU	CE%sT
# Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia.

# Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland

# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-04-26):
# http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law
# [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....
# The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL
# confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29.
#
# The EU [actually, EEC and Euratom] treaty with effect from 1973:
# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL
#
# This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes
# in subsequent decrees with the law
# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL
#
# It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980.  I have
# not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST
# changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to
# 1980-09-28 at 02:00.  If this is true, this differs slightly from
# the EU rule in that DST runs to 02:00, not 03:00.  We don't know
# when Denmark began using the EU rule correctly, but we have only
# confirmation of the 1980-time, so I presume it was correct in 1981:
# The law is about the management of the extra hour, concerning
# working hours reported and effect on obligatory-rest rules (which
# was suspended on that night):
# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL

# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-06-11):
# The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between
# Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two.

# From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11):
# Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not
# wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Denmark	1916	only	-	May	14	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Denmark	1916	only	-	Sep	30	23:00	0	-
Rule	Denmark	1940	only	-	May	15	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Denmark	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Denmark	1945	only	-	Aug	15	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Denmark	1946	only	-	May	 1	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Denmark	1946	only	-	Sep	 1	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Denmark	1947	only	-	May	 4	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Denmark	1947	only	-	Aug	10	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Denmark	1948	only	-	May	 9	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Denmark	1948	only	-	Aug	 8	 2:00s	0	-
#
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Copenhagen	 0:50:20 -	LMT	1890
			 0:50:20 -	CMT	1894 Jan  1 # Copenhagen MT
			 1:00	Denmark	CE%sT	1942 Nov  2  2:00s
			 1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2  2:00
			 1:00	Denmark	CE%sT	1980
			 1:00	EU	CE%sT
Zone Atlantic/Faroe	-0:27:04 -	LMT	1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn
			 0:00	-	WET	1981
			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
#
# From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31):
# During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in
# East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones.
# My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2017-12-10):
# Greenland joined the European Communities as part of Denmark,
# obtained home rule on 1979-05-01, and left the European Communities
# on 1985-02-01.  It therefore should have been using EU
# rules at least through 1984.  Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthåb
# used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU
# rules since at least 1991.  Assume EU rules since 1980.

# From Gwillim Law (2001-06-06), citing
# <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15),
# and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:
#
# Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC
# is according to the following time line:
#
# The military zone near Thule	UTC-4
# Standard Greenland time	UTC-3
# Scoresbysund			UTC-1
# Danmarkshavn			UTC
#
# In the military area near Thule and in Danmarkshavn DST will not be
# introduced.

# From Rives McDow (2001-11-01):
#
# I correspond regularly with the Dansk Polarcenter, and wrote them at
# the time to clarify the situation in Thule.  Unfortunately, I have
# not heard back from them regarding my recent letter.  [But I have
# info from earlier correspondence.]
#
# According to the center, a very small local time zone around Thule
# Air Base keeps the time according to UTC-4, implementing daylight
# savings using North America rules, changing the time at 02:00 local time....
#
# The east coast of Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund
# uses UTC in the same way as in Iceland, year round, with no dst.
# There are just a few stations on this coast, including the
# Danmarkshavn ICAO weather station mentioned in your September 29th
# email.  The other stations are two sledge patrol stations in
# Mestersvig and Daneborg, the air force base at Station Nord, and the
# DPC research station at Zackenberg.
#
# Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use
# the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthåb).
#
# The rest of Greenland, including Godthåb (this area, although it
# includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time
# UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules.
#
# It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and
# North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators
# maintaining traffic in these areas.  However, the official status of
# this area is that it sticks with Godthåb time.  This area might be
# considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this.

# From Rives McDow (2001-11-19):
# I heard back from someone stationed at Thule; the time change took place
# there at 2:00 AM.

# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT;
# the 1995 map as like Godthåb.
# For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthåb before 1996.
# startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error,
# so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year.
# For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules.

# From J William Piggott (2016-02-20):
# "Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund" is officially named
# "National Park" by Executive Order:
# http://naalakkersuisut.gl/~/media/Nanoq/Files/Attached%20Files/Engelske-tekster/Legislation/Executive%20Order%20National%20Park.rtf
# It is their only National Park.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Thule	1991	1992	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Thule	1991	1992	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Thule	1993	2006	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Thule	1993	2006	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Thule	2007	max	-	Mar	Sun>=8	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Thule	2007	max	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:00	0	S
#
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28
			-3:00	-	-03	1980 Apr  6  2:00
			-3:00	EU	-03/-02	1996
			0:00	-	GMT
Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit
			-2:00	-	-02	1980 Apr  6  2:00
			-2:00	C-Eur	-02/-01	1981 Mar 29
			-1:00	EU	-01/+00
Zone America/Godthab	-3:26:56 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk
			-3:00	-	-03	1980 Apr  6  2:00
			-3:00	EU	-03/-02
Zone America/Thule	-4:35:08 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base
			-4:00	Thule	A%sT

# Estonia
#
# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
#
# From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):
# A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards
# [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,
# a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....
#
# From Peter Ilieve (1996-10-28):
# [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s,
# but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:]
# "I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different
# (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules
# conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia....
# A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on
# human physiology.  It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to
# summer time next spring."

# From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:
# The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law
# http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390
# refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between
# the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22-27, 120).
#
# I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation
# for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"
# (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).

# From The Baltic Times <https://www.baltictimes.com/> (1999-09-09)
# via Steffen Thorsen:
# This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,
# a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....
# But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European
# Union are still unclear.  In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory
# for all member states until 2001.  Brussels has yet to decide what to do
# after that.

# From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29):
# Regulation No. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation
# No. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all
# the year round.  The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.

# From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21):
# The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics.
# Now we are using again EU rules.
#
# From Urmet Jänes (2002-03-28):
# The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.

# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Tallinn	1:39:00	-	LMT	1880
			1:39:00	-	TMT	1918 Feb    # Tallinn Mean Time
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1919 Jul
			1:39:00	-	TMT	1921 May
			2:00	-	EET	1940 Aug  6
			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Sep 15
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Sep 22
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1989 Mar 26  2:00s
			2:00	1:00	EEST	1989 Sep 24  2:00s
			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1998 Sep 22
			2:00	EU	EE%sT	1999 Oct 31  4:00
			2:00	-	EET	2002 Feb 21
			2:00	EU	EE%sT

# Finland

# From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC):
# Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,
# and it's supposed to change at 4am...

# From Janne Snabb (2010-07-15):
#
# I noticed that the Finland data is not accurate for years 1981 and 1982.
# During these two first trial years the DST adjustment was made one hour
# earlier than in forthcoming years. Starting 1983 the adjustment was made
# according to the central European standards.
#
# This is documented in Heikki Oja: Aikakirja 2007, published by The Almanac
# Office of University of Helsinki, ISBN 952-10-3221-9, available online (in
# Finnish) at
# https://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf
#
# Page 105 (56 in PDF version) has a handy table of all past daylight savings
# transitions. It is easy enough to interpret without Finnish skills.
#
# This is also confirmed by Finnish Broadcasting Company's archive at:
# http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401
#
# The news clip from 1981 says that "the time between 2 and 3 o'clock does not
# exist tonight."

# From Konstantin Hyppönen (2014-06-13):
# [Heikki Oja's book Aikakirja 2013]
# https://almanakka.helsinki.fi/images/aikakirja/Aikakirja2013kokonaan.pdf
# pages 104-105, including a scan from a newspaper published on Apr 2 1942
# say that ... [o]n Apr 2 1942, 24 o'clock (which means Apr 3 1942,
# 00:00), clocks were moved one hour forward. The newspaper
# mentions "on the night from Thursday to Friday"....
# On Oct 4 1942, clocks were moved at 1:00 one hour backwards.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-14):
# Go with Oja over Shanks.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Finland	1942	only	-	Apr	2	24:00	1:00	S
Rule	Finland	1942	only	-	Oct	4	1:00	0	-
Rule	Finland	1981	1982	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Finland	1981	1982	-	Sep	lastSun	3:00	0	-

# Milne says Helsinki (Helsingfors) time was 1:39:49.2 (official document);
# round to nearest.

# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Helsinki	1:39:49 -	LMT	1878 May 31
			1:39:49	-	HMT	1921 May    # Helsinki Mean Time
			2:00	Finland	EE%sT	1983
			2:00	EU	EE%sT

# Åland Is
Link	Europe/Helsinki	Europe/Mariehamn


# France

# From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):
#
# Henri Le Corre, Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, Éditions
# Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993
#
# Gabriel, Traité de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Trédaniel,
# Paris, 1991
#
# Françoise Gauquelin, Problèmes de l'heure résolus en astrologie,
# Guy Trédaniel, Paris 1987


#
# Shank & Pottenger seem to use '24:00' ambiguously; resolve it with Whitman.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	France	1916	only	-	Jun	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1916	1919	-	Oct	Sun>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	France	1917	only	-	Mar	24	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1918	only	-	Mar	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1920	only	-	Feb	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1920	only	-	Oct	23	23:00s	0	-
Rule	France	1921	only	-	Mar	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1921	only	-	Oct	25	23:00s	0	-
Rule	France	1922	only	-	Mar	25	23:00s	1:00	S
# DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st
# Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions
# were Apr 12 and Oct 5.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule	France	1922	1938	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	France	1923	only	-	May	26	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1924	only	-	Mar	29	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1925	only	-	Apr	 4	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1930	only	-	Apr	12	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1931	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1932	only	-	Apr	 2	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1933	only	-	Mar	25	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1934	only	-	Apr	 7	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1935	only	-	Mar	30	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1936	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1937	only	-	Apr	 3	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1938	only	-	Mar	26	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1939	only	-	Nov	18	23:00s	0	-
Rule	France	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 2:00	1:00	S
# The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger
# write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations.
# Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arnéguy, Orthez,
# Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamothe-Montravel, Marœuil, La
# Rochefoucauld, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes,
# Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin,
# Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalon-sur-Saône, Arbois,
# Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collonges (Haute-Savoie).
Rule	France	1941	only	-	May	 5	 0:00	2:00	M # Midsummer
# Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00,
# but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),
# who quotes the Ephémérides astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
# as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.
Rule	France	1941	only	-	Oct	 6	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	France	1942	only	-	Mar	 9	 0:00	2:00	M
Rule	France	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	 3:00	1:00	S
Rule	France	1943	only	-	Mar	29	 2:00	2:00	M
Rule	France	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	 3:00	1:00	S
Rule	France	1944	only	-	Apr	 3	 2:00	2:00	M
Rule	France	1944	only	-	Oct	 8	 1:00	1:00	S
Rule	France	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00	2:00	M
Rule	France	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 3:00	0	-
# Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;
# go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.
Rule	France	1976	only	-	Mar	28	 1:00	1:00	S
Rule	France	1976	only	-	Sep	26	 1:00	0	-
# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05,
# but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.
# Go with Howse.  Howse writes that the time in France was officially based
# on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Paris	0:09:21 -	LMT	1891 Mar 15  0:01
			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11  0:01 # Paris MT
# Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.
			0:00	France	WE%sT	1940 Jun 14 23:00
# Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation;
# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Aug 25
			0:00	France	WE%sT	1945 Sep 16  3:00
			1:00	France	CE%sT	1977
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Germany

# From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):
# The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische
# Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
# [See tz-link.html for the URL.]

# From Jörg Schilling (2002-10-23):
# In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by
# https://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/
# General [Nikolai] Bersarin.

# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08):
# http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf
# says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20.
# However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so
# this was equivalent to UT +03, not +04.


# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Germany	1946	only	-	Apr	14	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Germany	1946	only	-	Oct	 7	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Germany	1947	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
# http://www.ptb.de/de/org/4/44/441/salt.htm says the following transition
# occurred at 3:00 MEZ, not the 2:00 MEZ given in Shanks & Pottenger.
# Go with the PTB.
Rule	Germany	1947	only	-	Apr	 6	3:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Germany	1947	only	-	May	11	2:00s	2:00	M
Rule	Germany	1947	only	-	Jun	29	3:00	1:00	S
Rule	Germany	1948	only	-	Apr	18	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Germany	1949	only	-	Apr	10	2:00s	1:00	S

Rule SovietZone	1945	only	-	May	24	2:00	2:00	M # Midsummer
Rule SovietZone	1945	only	-	Sep	24	3:00	1:00	S
Rule SovietZone	1945	only	-	Nov	18	2:00s	0	-

# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Berlin	0:53:28 -	LMT	1893 Apr
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 May 24  2:00
			1:00 SovietZone	CE%sT	1946
			1:00	Germany	CE%sT	1980
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# From Tobias Conradi (2011-09-12):
# Büsingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton
# Schaffhausen, did not start observing DST in 1980 as the rest of DE
# (West Germany at that time) and DD (East Germany at that time) did.
# DD merged into DE, the area is currently covered by code DE in ISO 3166-1,
# which in turn is covered by the zone Europe/Berlin.
#
# Source for the time in Büsingen 1980:
# http://www.srf.ch/player/video?id=c012c029-03b7-4c2b-9164-aa5902cd58d3

# From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-03):
# Büsingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970.

Link	Europe/Zurich	Europe/Busingen

# Georgia
# Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi.
# Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni)
# is in Europe.  Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part.

# Gibraltar
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Gibraltar	-0:21:24 -	LMT	1880 Aug  2  0:00s
			0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1957 Apr 14  2:00
			1:00	-	CET	1982
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Greece
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule	Greece	1932	only	-	Jul	 7	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1932	only	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0	-
# Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule	Greece	1941	only	-	Apr	 7	0:00	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule	Greece	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	3:00	0	-
Rule	Greece	1943	only	-	Mar	30	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	0:00	0	-
# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule	Greece	1952	only	-	Jul	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1952	only	-	Nov	 2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Greece	1975	only	-	Apr	12	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1975	only	-	Nov	26	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Greece	1976	only	-	Apr	11	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1976	only	-	Oct	10	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Greece	1977	1978	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1977	only	-	Sep	26	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Greece	1978	only	-	Sep	24	4:00	0	-
Rule	Greece	1979	only	-	Apr	 1	9:00	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1979	only	-	Sep	29	2:00	0	-
Rule	Greece	1980	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1980	only	-	Sep	28	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Athens	1:34:52 -	LMT	1895 Sep 14
			1:34:52	-	AMT	1916 Jul 28  0:01 # Athens MT
			2:00	Greece	EE%sT	1941 Apr 30
			1:00	Greece	CE%sT	1944 Apr  4
			2:00	Greece	EE%sT	1981
			# Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981;
			# go with EU rules instead, since Greece joined Jan 1.
			2:00	EU	EE%sT

# Hungary
# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15):
# Dates for 1916-1945 are taken from:
# Oross A. Jelen a múlt jövője: a nyári időszámítás Magyarországon 1916-1945.
# National Archives of Hungary (2012-10-29).
# http://mnl.gov.hu/a_het_dokumentuma/a_nyari_idoszamitas_magyarorszagon_19161945.html
# This source does not always give times, which are taken from Shanks
# & Pottenger (which disagree about the dates).
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Hungary	1918	only	-	Apr	 1	 3:00	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1918	only	-	Sep	16	 3:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1919	only	-	Apr	15	 3:00	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1919	only	-	Nov	24	 3:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1945	only	-	May	 1	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1945	only	-	Nov	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1946	only	-	Mar	31	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1946	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1947	1949	-	Apr	Sun>=4	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1950	only	-	Apr	17	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1950	only	-	Oct	23	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1954	1955	-	May	23	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1954	1955	-	Oct	 3	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1956	only	-	Jun	Sun>=1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1956	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1957	only	-	Jun	Sun>=1	 1:00	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1957	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 3:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1980	only	-	Apr	 6	 1:00	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Budapest	1:16:20 -	LMT	1890 Oct
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918
			1:00	Hungary	CE%sT	1941 Apr  8
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945
			1:00	Hungary	CE%sT	1980 Sep 28  2:00s
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Iceland
#
# From Adam David (1993-11-06):
# The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.
#
# (1993-12-05):
# This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of
# Iceland Almanak.
#
# From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour
# behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts
# of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which
# was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT.
#
# "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks
# of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the
# time the norsemen first settled Iceland.  The first day of winter is always
# Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars.
#
# (1993-12-10):
# I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the
# beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus
# to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question.
#	the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day
#	(old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.
# St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"
# might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it
# might mean something else (???).
#
# From Paul Eggert (2014-11-22):
# The information below is taken from the 1988 Almanak; see
# http://www.almanak.hi.is/klukkan.html
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Iceland	1917	1919	-	Feb	19	23:00	1:00	-
Rule	Iceland	1917	only	-	Oct	21	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1918	1919	-	Nov	16	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1921	only	-	Mar	19	23:00	1:00	-
Rule	Iceland	1921	only	-	Jun	23	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1939	only	-	Apr	29	23:00	1:00	-
Rule	Iceland	1939	only	-	Oct	29	 2:00	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 2:00	1:00	-
Rule	Iceland	1940	1941	-	Nov	Sun>=2	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1941	1942	-	Mar	Sun>=2	 1:00s	1:00	-
# 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
Rule	Iceland	1943	1946	-	Mar	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	-
Rule	Iceland	1942	1948	-	Oct	Sun>=22	 1:00s	0	-
# 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
Rule	Iceland	1947	1967	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	-
# 1949 and 1967 Oct transitions delayed by 1 week
Rule	Iceland	1949	only	-	Oct	30	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1950	1966	-	Oct	Sun>=22	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1967	only	-	Oct	29	 1:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik	-1:28	-	LMT	1908
			-1:00	Iceland	-01/+00	1968 Apr  7  1:00s
			 0:00	-	GMT

# Italy
#
# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
# Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893,
# called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32).
# During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time.
# But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff,
# so record only the time in Rome.
#
# From Stephen Trainor (2019-05-06):
# http://www.ac-ilsestante.it/MERIDIANE/ora_legale/ORA_LEGALE_ESTIVA_IN_ITALIA.htm
# ... the [1866] law went into effect on 12 December 1866, rather than
# the date of the decree (22 Sep 1866)
# https://web.archive.org/web/20070824155341/http://www.iav.it/planetario/didastro/didastro/english.htm
# ... "In Italy in 1866 there were 6 railway times (Torino, Verona, Firenze,
# Roma, Napoli, Palermo). On that year it was decided to unify them, adopting
# the average time of Rome (even if this city was not yet part of the
# kingdom).  On the 12th December 1866, on the starting of the winter time
# table, it took effect in the railways, the post office and the telegraph,
# not only for the internal service but also for the public....  Milano set
# the public watches on the Rome time on the same day (12th December 1866),
# Torino and Bologna on the 1st January 1867, Venezia the 1st May 1880 and the
# last city was Cagliari in 1886."
#
# From Luigi Rosa (2019-05-07):
# this is the scan of the decree:
# http://www.radiomarconi.com/marconi/filopanti/1866c.jpg
#
# From Michael Deckers (2016-10-24):
# http://www.ac-ilsestante.it/MERIDIANE/ora_legale quotes a law of 1893-08-10
# ... [translated as] "The preceding dispositions will enter into
# force at the instant at which, according to the time specified in
# the 1st article, the 1st of November 1893 will begin...."
#
# From Pierpaolo Bernardi (2016-10-20):
# The authoritative source for time in Italy is the national metrological
# institute, which has a summary page of historical DST data at
# http://www.inrim.it/res/tf/ora_legale_i.shtml
# [now at http://oldsite.inrim.it/res/tf/ora_legale_i.shtml as of 2017]
# (2016-10-24):
# http://www.renzobaldini.it/le-ore-legali-in-italia/
# has still different data for 1944.  It divides Italy in two, as
# there were effectively two governments at the time, north of Gothic
# Line German controlled territory, official government RSI, and south
# of the Gothic Line, controlled by allied armies.
#
# From Brian Inglis (2016-10-23):
# Viceregal LEGISLATIVE DECREE. 14 September 1944, no. 219.
# Restoration of Standard Time. (044U0219) (OJ 62 of 30.9.1944) ...
# Given the R. law decreed on 1944-03-29, no. 92, by which standard time is
# advanced to sixty minutes later starting at hour two on 1944-04-02; ...
# Starting at hour three on the date 1944-09-17 standard time will be resumed.
#
# From Alois Triendl (2019-07-02):
# I spent 6 Euros to buy two archive copies of Il Messaggero, a Roman paper,
# for 1 and 2 April 1944.  The edition of 2 April has this note: "Tonight at 2
# am, put forward the clock by one hour.  Remember that in the night between
# today and Monday the 'ora legale' will come in force again."  That makes it
# clear that in Rome the change was on Monday, 3 April 1944 at 2 am.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2016-10-27):
# Go with INRiM for DST rules, except as corrected by Inglis for 1944
# for the Kingdom of Italy.  This is consistent with Renzo Baldini.
# Model Rome's occupation by using C-Eur rules from 1943-09-10
# to 1944-06-04; although Rome was an open city during this period, it
# was effectively controlled by Germany.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Italy	1916	only	-	Jun	 3	24:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1916	1917	-	Sep	30	24:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1917	only	-	Mar	31	24:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1918	only	-	Mar	 9	24:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1918	only	-	Oct	 6	24:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	24:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1919	only	-	Oct	 4	24:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1920	only	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1920	only	-	Sep	18	24:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1940	only	-	Jun	14	24:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1943	only	-	Mar	29	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1944	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1944	only	-	Sep	17	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1945	only	-	Sep	15	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1946	only	-	Mar	17	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1946	only	-	Oct	 6	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1947	only	-	Mar	16	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1947	only	-	Oct	 5	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1948	only	-	Feb	29	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1948	only	-	Oct	 3	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1966	1968	-	May	Sun>=22	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1966	only	-	Sep	24	24:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1967	1969	-	Sep	Sun>=22	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1969	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1970	only	-	May	31	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1970	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1971	1972	-	May	Sun>=22	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1971	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1972	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1973	only	-	Jun	 3	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1973	1974	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1974	only	-	May	26	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1975	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1975	1977	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1976	only	-	May	30	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1977	1979	-	May	Sun>=22	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1979	only	-	Sep	30	 0:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Rome	0:49:56 -	LMT	1866 Dec 12
			0:49:56	-	RMT	1893 Oct 31 23:49:56 # Rome Mean
			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1943 Sep 10
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Jun  4
			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1980
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

Link	Europe/Rome	Europe/Vatican
Link	Europe/Rome	Europe/San_Marino

# Latvia

# From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17):

# I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy
# of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the
# correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about
# changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981....
#
# Act No. 35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ...
# according to the Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24
# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00)
# and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00).
#
# Act No. 592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ...
# according to the Act No. 967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13
# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
# (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of
# September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day).
#
# Act No. 81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ...
# according to the Act No. 227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14
# ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR,
# Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the
# time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia
# transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward.  The end of
# daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00
# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is
# 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock....
#
# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of
# 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of
# daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union.

# From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06):
# This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in
# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of
# 29-Feb-2000 (No. 79) <http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm>,
# in Latvian for subscribers only).

# From RFE/RL Newsline
# http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html
# (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:
# The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will
# institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported.
# Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their
# clocks one hour in the spring....
# Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvītis noted that Latvia had too few
# daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European
# Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving
# time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government
# urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it
# appears that they will not do so....

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Latvia	1989	1996	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Latvia	1989	1996	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-

# Milne 1899 says Riga was 1:36:28 (Polytechnique House time).
# Byalokoz 1919 says Latvia was 1:36:34.
# Go with Byalokoz.

# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Riga	1:36:34	-	LMT	1880
			1:36:34	-	RMT	1918 Apr 15  2:00 # Riga MT
			1:36:34	1:00	LST	1918 Sep 16  3:00 # Latvian ST
			1:36:34	-	RMT	1919 Apr  1  2:00
			1:36:34	1:00	LST	1919 May 22  3:00
			1:36:34	-	RMT	1926 May 11
			2:00	-	EET	1940 Aug  5
			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Jul
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Oct 13
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1989 Mar lastSun  2:00s
			2:00	1:00	EEST	1989 Sep lastSun  2:00s
			2:00	Latvia	EE%sT	1997 Jan 21
			2:00	EU	EE%sT	2000 Feb 29
			2:00	-	EET	2001 Jan  2
			2:00	EU	EE%sT

# Liechtenstein

# From Paul Eggert (2013-09-09):
# Shanks & Pottenger say Vaduz is like Zurich.

# From Alois Treindl (2019-07-04):
# I was able to access the online archive of the Vaduz paper Vaterland ...
# I could confirm from the paper that Liechtenstein did in fact follow
# the same DST in 1941 and 1942 as Switzerland did.

Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Vaduz


# Lithuania

# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).

# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
# IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is
# known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.

# From Marius Gedminas (1998-08-07):
# I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone
# (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.

# From ELTA No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29) <http://www.elta.lt/>,
# via Steffen Thorsen:
# Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)
# to be valid here starting from October 31,
# as decided by the national government on Wednesday....
# The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a
# motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was
# already done by Estonia.

# From the Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism
# <http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm> (2000-03-27):
# Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.

# From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07):
# As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will
# observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid
# down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its
# neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of
# 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at
# http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm


# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Vilnius	1:41:16	-	LMT	1880
			1:24:00	-	WMT	1917        # Warsaw Mean Time
			1:35:36	-	KMT	1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time
			1:00	-	CET	1920 Jul 12
			2:00	-	EET	1920 Oct  9
			1:00	-	CET	1940 Aug  3
			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Jun 24
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Aug
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1989 Mar 26  2:00s
			2:00	Russia	EE%sT	1991 Sep 29  2:00s
			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1998
			2:00	-	EET	1998 Mar 29  1:00u
			1:00	EU	CE%sT	1999 Oct 31  1:00u
			2:00	-	EET	2003 Jan  1
			2:00	EU	EE%sT

# Luxembourg
# Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways;
# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Lux	1916	only	-	May	14	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1917	only	-	Apr	28	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1917	only	-	Sep	17	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1918	only	-	Apr	Mon>=15	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1918	only	-	Sep	Mon>=15	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Lux	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1919	only	-	Oct	 5	 3:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1920	only	-	Feb	14	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1920	only	-	Oct	24	 2:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1921	only	-	Mar	14	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1921	only	-	Oct	26	 2:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1922	only	-	Mar	25	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1922	only	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1923	only	-	Apr	21	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1923	only	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 2:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1924	only	-	Mar	29	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1924	1928	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1925	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Luxembourg	0:24:36 -	LMT	1904 Jun
			1:00	Lux	CE%sT	1918 Nov 25
			0:00	Lux	WE%sT	1929 Oct  6  2:00s
			0:00	Belgium	WE%sT	1940 May 14  3:00
			1:00	C-Eur	WE%sT	1944 Sep 18  3:00
			1:00	Belgium	CE%sT	1977
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# North Macedonia
# See Europe/Belgrade.

# Malta
#
# From Paul Eggert (2016-10-21):
# Assume 1900-1972 was like Rome, overriding Shanks.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Malta	1973	only	-	Mar	31	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Malta	1973	only	-	Sep	29	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Malta	1974	only	-	Apr	21	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Malta	1974	only	-	Sep	16	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Malta	1975	1979	-	Apr	Sun>=15	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Malta	1975	1980	-	Sep	Sun>=15	2:00	0	-
Rule	Malta	1980	only	-	Mar	31	2:00	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Malta	0:58:04 -	LMT	1893 Nov  2  0:00s # Valletta
			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1973 Mar 31
			1:00	Malta	CE%sT	1981
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Moldova

# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
# the act of the government of the Republic of Moldova Nr. 132 from 1990-05-04
# http://lex.justice.md/viewdoc.php?action=view&view=doc&id=298782&lang=2
# ... says that since 1990-05-06 on the territory of the Moldavian SSR
# time would be calculated as the standard time of the second time belt
# plus one hour of the "summer" time. To implement that clocks would be
# adjusted one hour backwards at 1990-05-06 2:00. After that "summer"
# time would be cancelled last Sunday of September at 3:00 and
# reintroduced last Sunday of March at 2:00.

# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write
# that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00.
# However, this is most likely an error, as Moldova declared independence
# on 1991-08-27 (the 1992-01-19 date is that of a Russian decree).
# In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area
# and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time.
# But [two people] separately reported via
# Jesper Nørgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.
# The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now.
#
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-17):
# Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as
# "Pridnestrovie") has abolished seasonal clock change (no transition
# to the Winter Time).
#
# News (in Russian):
# http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html
# http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html
#
# The substance of this change (reinstatement of the Tiraspol entry)
# is from a patch from Petr Machata (2011-10-17)
#
# From Tim Parenti (2011-10-19)
# In addition, being situated at +4651+2938 would give Tiraspol
# a pre-1880 LMT offset of 1:58:32.
#
# (which agrees with the earlier entry that had been removed)
#
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-26)
# NO need to divide Moldova into two timezones at this point.
# As of today, Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- Tiraspol reversed its own
# decision to abolish DST this winter.
# Following Moldova and neighboring Ukraine- Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)-
# Tiraspol will go back to winter time on October 30, 2011.
# News from Moldova (in russian):
# https://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html

# From Roman Tudos (2015-07-02):
# http://lex.justice.md/index.php?action=view&view=doc&lang=1&id=355077
# From Paul Eggert (2015-07-01):
# The abovementioned official link to IGO1445-868/2014 states that
# 2014-10-26's fallback transition occurred at 03:00 local time.  Also,
# https://www.trm.md/en/social/la-30-martie-vom-trece-la-ora-de-vara
# says the 2014-03-30 spring-forward transition was at 02:00 local time.
# Guess that since 1997 Moldova has switched one hour before the EU.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Moldova	1997	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Moldova	1997	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 3:00	0	-

# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Chisinau	1:55:20 -	LMT	1880
			1:55	-	CMT	1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
			1:44:24	-	BMT	1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
			2:00	Romania	EE%sT	1940 Aug 15
			2:00	1:00	EEST	1941 Jul 17
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Aug 24
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990 May  6  2:00
			2:00	Russia	EE%sT	1992
			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1997
# See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules.
			2:00	Moldova	EE%sT

# Monaco
# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
# more precise 0:09:21.
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Monaco	0:29:32 -	LMT	1891 Mar 15
			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
			0:00	France	WE%sT	1945 Sep 16  3:00
			1:00	France	CE%sT	1977
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Montenegro
# See Europe/Belgrade.

# Netherlands

# Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
# but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.

# However, Robert H. van Gent writes (2001-04-01):
# Howse's statement is only correct up to 1909. From 1909-05-01 (00:00:00
# Amsterdam mean time) onwards, the whole of the Netherlands (including
# the Dutch railways) was required by law to observe Amsterdam mean time
# (19 minutes 32.13 seconds ahead of GMT). This had already been the
# common practice (except for the railways) for many decades but it was
# not until 1909 when the Dutch government finally defined this by law.
# On 1937-07-01 this was changed to 20 minutes (exactly) ahead of GMT and
# was generally known as Dutch Time ("Nederlandse Tijd").
#
# (2001-04-08):
# 1892-05-01 was the date when the Dutch railways were by law required to
# observe GMT while the remainder of the Netherlands adhered to the common
# practice of following Amsterdam mean time.
#
# (2001-04-09):
# In 1835 the authorities of the province of North Holland requested the
# municipal authorities of the towns and cities in the province to observe
# Amsterdam mean time but I do not know in how many cases this request was
# actually followed.
#
# From 1852 onwards the Dutch telegraph offices were by law required to
# observe Amsterdam mean time. As the time signals from the observatory of
# Leiden were also distributed by the telegraph system, I assume that most
# places linked up with the telegraph (and railway) system automatically
# adopted Amsterdam mean time.
#
# Although the early Dutch railway companies initially observed a variety
# of times, most of them had adopted Amsterdam mean time by 1858 but it
# was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe
# Amsterdam mean time.

# The data entries before 1945 are taken from
# https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/wettijd/wettijd.htm

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Neth	1916	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	NST	# Netherlands Summer Time
Rule	Neth	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	AMT	# Amsterdam Mean Time
Rule	Neth	1917	only	-	Apr	16	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1917	only	-	Sep	17	2:00s	0	AMT
Rule	Neth	1918	1921	-	Apr	Mon>=1	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1918	1921	-	Sep	lastMon	2:00s	0	AMT
Rule	Neth	1922	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1922	1936	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	AMT
Rule	Neth	1923	only	-	Jun	Fri>=1	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1924	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1925	only	-	Jun	Fri>=1	2:00s	1:00	NST
# From 1926 through 1939 DST began 05-15, except that it was delayed by a week
# in years when 05-15 fell in the Pentecost weekend.
Rule	Neth	1926	1931	-	May	15	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1932	only	-	May	22	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1933	1936	-	May	15	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1937	only	-	May	22	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1937	only	-	Jul	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Neth	1937	1939	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Neth	1938	1939	-	May	15	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Neth	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Neth	1945	only	-	Sep	16	2:00s	0	-
#
# Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13, but the .13 is omitted
# below because the current format requires STDOFF to be an integer.
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Amsterdam	0:19:32 -	LMT	1835
			0:19:32	Neth	%s	1937 Jul  1
			0:20	Neth +0020/+0120 1940 May 16  0:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2  2:00
			1:00	Neth	CE%sT	1977
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Norway
# http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks &
# Pottenger.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Norway	1916	only	-	May	22	1:00	1:00	S
Rule	Norway	1916	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
Rule	Norway	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Norway	1945	only	-	Oct	 1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Norway	1959	1964	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Norway	1959	1965	-	Sep	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Norway	1965	only	-	Apr	25	2:00s	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Oslo	0:43:00 -	LMT	1895 Jan  1
			1:00	Norway	CE%sT	1940 Aug 10 23:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2  2:00
			1:00	Norway	CE%sT	1980
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Svalbard & Jan Mayen

# From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01):
# Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and
# Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the
# time they were declared as parts of Norway.  Svalbard was declared
# as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan
# Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From
# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html> and
# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html>).  The law/regulation
# for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came
# into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a
# part of this law since 1925/1930. (From
# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html>) I have not been
# able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100)
# before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabited" since 1921 by
# Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever
# since 1921.  Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since
# before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere
# between 1895 and 1925 (inclusive).

# From Paul Eggert (2013-09-04):
#
# Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II,
# so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was
# keeping Berlin time.
#
# <https://www.jan-mayen.no/history.htm> says that the meteorologists
# burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in
# 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite
# frequent air attacks from Germans.  In 1943 the Americans established a
# radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City".  Possibly
# the UT offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that
# Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules.
#
# Svalbard is more complicated, as it was raided in August 1941 by an
# Allied party that evacuated the civilian population to England (says
# <http://www.bartleby.com/65/sv/Svalbard.html>).  The Svalbard FAQ
# <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were
# expelled on 1942-05-14.  However, small parties of Germans did return,
# and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954)
# http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html
# the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named
# Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945.
#
# All these events predate our cutoff date of 1970, so use Europe/Oslo
# for these regions.
Link	Europe/Oslo	Arctic/Longyearbyen

# Poland

# The 1919 dates and times can be found in Tygodnik Urzędowy nr 1 (1919-03-20),
# <http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/publication/32156> pp 1-2.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Poland	1918	1919	-	Sep	16	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Poland	1919	only	-	Apr	15	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1944	only	-	Apr	 3	2:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule	Poland	1944	only	-	Oct	 4	2:00	0	-
# For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule	Poland	1945	only	-	Apr	29	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1945	only	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	-
# For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski,
# Toruń Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,
# https://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1
# Thanks to Przemysław Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.
# He also gives these further references:
# Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>
# Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf>
Rule	Poland	1946	only	-	Apr	14	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1946	only	-	Oct	 7	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Poland	1947	only	-	May	 4	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1947	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Poland	1948	only	-	Apr	18	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1949	only	-	Apr	10	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1957	only	-	Jun	 2	1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1957	1958	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
Rule	Poland	1958	only	-	Mar	30	1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1959	only	-	May	31	1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1959	1961	-	Oct	Sun>=1	1:00s	0	-
Rule	Poland	1960	only	-	Apr	 3	1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1961	1964	-	May	lastSun	1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1962	1964	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Warsaw	1:24:00 -	LMT	1880
			1:24:00	-	WMT	1915 Aug  5 # Warsaw Mean Time
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918 Sep 16  3:00
			2:00	Poland	EE%sT	1922 Jun
			1:00	Poland	CE%sT	1940 Jun 23  2:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Oct
			1:00	Poland	CE%sT	1977
			1:00	W-Eur	CE%sT	1988
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Portugal

# From Paul Eggert (2014-08-11), after a heads-up from Stephen Colebourne:
# According to a Portuguese decree (1911-05-26)
# https://dre.pt/application/dir/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
# Lisbon was at -0:36:44.68, but switched to GMT on 1912-01-01 at 00:00.
# Round the old offset to -0:36:45.  This agrees with Willett....
#
# From Michael Deckers (2018-02-15):
# article 5 [of the 1911 decree; Deckers's translation] ...:
# These dispositions shall enter into force at the instant at which,
# according to the 2nd article, the civil day January 1, 1912 begins,
# all clocks therefore having to be advanced or set back correspondingly ...

# From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):
# Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone
# (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.
#
# Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve
# that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.
# The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.
#
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12):
# IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions
# at 02:00u, not 01:00u.  Assume that these are typos.
# IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00.
# IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00.
# Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal
# harmonized with EU rules), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not
# done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules.
# Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule	Port	1916	only	-	Jun	17	23:00	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule	Port	1916	only	-	Nov	 1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Port	1917	only	-	Feb	28	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1917	1921	-	Oct	14	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1918	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1919	only	-	Feb	28	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1920	only	-	Feb	29	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1921	only	-	Feb	28	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1924	only	-	Apr	16	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1924	only	-	Oct	14	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1926	1929	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1931	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule	Port	1931	1932	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1932	only	-	Apr	 2	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1934	only	-	Apr	 7	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule	Port	1934	1938	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
# Shanks & Pottenger give 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.
Rule	Port	1935	only	-	Mar	30	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1936	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule	Port	1937	only	-	Apr	 3	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1938	only	-	Mar	26	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule	Port	1939	only	-	Nov	18	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1940	only	-	Feb	24	23:00s	1:00	S
# Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.
Rule	Port	1940	1941	-	Oct	 5	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1941	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1942	1945	-	Mar	Sat>=8	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1942	only	-	Apr	25	22:00s	2:00	M # Midsummer
Rule	Port	1942	only	-	Aug	15	22:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1942	1945	-	Oct	Sat>=24	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1943	only	-	Apr	17	22:00s	2:00	M
Rule	Port	1943	1945	-	Aug	Sat>=25	22:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1944	1945	-	Apr	Sat>=21	22:00s	2:00	M
Rule	Port	1946	only	-	Apr	Sat>=1	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1946	only	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1947	1949	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1947	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 2:00s	0	-
# Shanks & Pottenger say DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman.
# Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule	Port	1951	1965	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1951	1965	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1977	only	-	Mar	27	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1977	only	-	Sep	25	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1978	1979	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1979	1982	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1980	only	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1981	1982	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1983	only	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
#
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Lisbon	-0:36:45 -	LMT	1884
			-0:36:45 -	LMT	1912 Jan  1  0:00u # Lisbon MT
			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1966 Apr  3  2:00
			 1:00	-	CET	1976 Sep 26  1:00
			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1983 Sep 25  1:00s
			 0:00	W-Eur	WE%sT	1992 Sep 27  1:00s
			 1:00	EU	CE%sT	1996 Mar 31  1:00u
			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
# This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z.
Zone Atlantic/Azores	-1:42:40 -	LMT	1884        # Ponta Delgada
			-1:54:32 -	HMT	1912 Jan  1  2:00u # Horta MT
			-2:00	Port	-02/-01	1942 Apr 25 22:00s
			-2:00	Port	+00	1942 Aug 15 22:00s
			-2:00	Port	-02/-01	1943 Apr 17 22:00s
			-2:00	Port	+00	1943 Aug 28 22:00s
			-2:00	Port	-02/-01	1944 Apr 22 22:00s
			-2:00	Port	+00	1944 Aug 26 22:00s
			-2:00	Port	-02/-01	1945 Apr 21 22:00s
			-2:00	Port	+00	1945 Aug 25 22:00s
			-2:00	Port	-02/-01	1966 Apr  3  2:00
			-1:00	Port	-01/+00	1983 Sep 25  1:00s
			-1:00	W-Eur	-01/+00	1992 Sep 27  1:00s
			 0:00	EU	WE%sT	1993 Mar 28  1:00u
			-1:00	EU	-01/+00
# This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z.
Zone Atlantic/Madeira	-1:07:36 -	LMT	1884        # Funchal
			-1:07:36 -	FMT	1912 Jan  1  1:00u # Funchal MT
			-1:00	Port	-01/+00	1942 Apr 25 22:00s
			-1:00	Port	+01	1942 Aug 15 22:00s
			-1:00	Port	-01/+00	1943 Apr 17 22:00s
			-1:00	Port	+01	1943 Aug 28 22:00s
			-1:00	Port	-01/+00	1944 Apr 22 22:00s
			-1:00	Port	+01	1944 Aug 26 22:00s
			-1:00	Port	-01/+00	1945 Apr 21 22:00s
			-1:00	Port	+01	1945 Aug 25 22:00s
			-1:00	Port	-01/+00	1966 Apr  3  2:00
			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1983 Sep 25  1:00s
			 0:00	EU	WE%sT

# Romania
#
# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):
# Nine O'clock <http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html>
# (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
# 04:00 local time in fall 1998.  For lack of better info,
# assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,
# the same year as Bulgaria.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Romania	1932	only	-	May	21	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Romania	1932	1939	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Romania	1933	1939	-	Apr	Sun>=2	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Romania	1979	only	-	May	27	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Romania	1979	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Romania	1980	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Romania	1980	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Romania	1991	1993	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Romania	1991	1993	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Bucharest	1:44:24 -	LMT	1891 Oct
			1:44:24	-	BMT	1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
			2:00	Romania	EE%sT	1981 Mar 29  2:00s
			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1991
			2:00	Romania	EE%sT	1994
			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1997
			2:00	EU	EE%sT


# Russia

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-15):
# Based on last Russian Government Decree No. 725 on August 31, 2011
# (Government document
# http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/
# in Russian)
# there are few corrections have to be made for some Russian time zones...
# All updated Russian Time Zones were placed in table and translated to English
# by WorldTimeZone.com at the link below:
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm

# From Sanjeev Gupta (2011-09-27):
# Scans of [Decree No. 23 of January 8, 1992] are available at:
# http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966
# They are in Cyrillic letters (presumably Russian).

# From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
# Regarding the instant when clocks in time-zone-shifting parts of Russia
# changed in September 2011:
#
# One source is
# http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/
# which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Decree of August 31,
# 2011 No. 725" and contains no other dates or "effective date" information.
#
# Another source is
# https://rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html
# which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Resolution of the
# Government of the Russian Federation on August 31, 2011 N 725" and also
# contains "Date first official publication: September 6, 2011 Posted on:
# in the 'RG' - Federal Issue No. 5573 September 6, 2011" but which
# does not contain any "effective date" information.
#
# Another source is
# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7
# which, in note 8, contains "Resolution No. 725 of August 31, 2011...
# Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
# but which does not contain any reference to September 6, 2011.
#
# The Wikipedia article refers to
# http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896
# which seems to copy the text of the government.ru page.
#
# Tobias Conradi combines Wikipedia's
# "as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
# with www.rg.ru's "Date of first official publication: September 6, 2011" to
# get September 13, 2011 as the cutover date (unusually, a Tuesday, as Tobias
# Conradi notes).
#
# None of the sources indicates a time of day for changing clocks.
#
# Go with 2011-09-13 0:00s.

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-01):
# According to the Russian news (ITAR-TASS News Agency)
# http://en.itar-tass.com/russia/738562
# the State Duma has approved ... the draft bill on returning to
# winter time standard and return Russia 11 time zones.  The new
# regulations will come into effect on October 26, 2014 at 02:00 ...
# http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/%28Spravka%29?OpenAgent&RN=431985-6&02
# Here is a link where we put together table (based on approved Bill N
# 431985-6) with proposed 11 Russian time zones and corresponding
# areas/cities/administrative centers in the Russian Federation (in English):
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia65.html
#
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-22):
# Putin signed the Federal Law 431985-6 ... (in Russian)
# http://itar-tass.com/obschestvo/1333711
# http://www.pravo.gov.ru:8080/page.aspx?111660
# http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/46279
# From October 26, 2014 the new Russian time zone map will look like this:
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-map-2014-07.html

# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,
# are from Andrey A. Chernov.  The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger,
# except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat
# 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.
#
# From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):
# But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!
# I do not know why they have decided to make this change;
# as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching
# so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.
#
# From Andrey A. Chernov (1996-10-04):
# 'MSK' and 'MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with
# UNIX-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group)....
# The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor
# (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there.
#
# From Chris Carrier (1996-10-30):
# According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from
# Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ...
# still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located.
#
# For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from
# John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07):
# News - often false - is spread by word of mouth.  A rumor that it was
# time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with
# the rest of Russia for two weeks - even soldiers stationed here began
# enforcing curfew at the wrong time.
#
# From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05):
# There's considerable evidence that Sakhalin Island used to be in
# UTC+11, and has changed to UTC+10, in this decade.  I start with the
# SSIM, which listed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in zone RU10 along with Magadan
# until February 1997, and then in RU9 with Khabarovsk and Vladivostok
# since September 1997....  Although the Kuril Islands are
# administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have
# remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan.

# From Marat Nigametzianov (2018-07-16):
# this is link to order from 1956 about timezone in USSR
# http://astro.uni-altai.ru/~orion/blog/2011/11/novyie-granitsyi-chasovyih-poyasov-v-sssr/
#
# From Paul Eggert (2018-07-16):
# Perhaps someone could translate the above-mentioned link and use it
# to correct our data for the ex-Soviet Union.  It cites the following:
# «Поясное время и новые границы часовых поясов» / сост. П.Н. Долгов,
# отв. ред. Г.Д. Бурдун - М: Комитет стандартов, мер и измерительных
# приборов при Совете Министров СССР, Междуведомственная комиссия
# единой службы времени, 1956 г.
# This book looks like it would be a helpful resource for the Soviet
# Union through 1956.  Although a copy was in the Scientific Library
# of Tomsk State University, I have not been able to track down a copy nearby.
#
# From Stepan Golosunov (2018-07-21):
# http://astro.uni-altai.ru/~orion/blog/2015/05/center-reforma-ischisleniya-vremeni-br-na-territorii-sssr-v-1957-godu-center/
# says that the 1956 decision to change time belts' borders was not
# implemented as planned in 1956 and the change happened in 1957.
# There is also the problem that actual time zones were different from
# the official time belts (and from many time belts' maps) as there were
# numerous exceptions to application of time belt rules.  For example,
# https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Московское_время#Перемещение_границы_применения_московского_времени_на_восток
# says that by 1962 there were many regions in the 3rd time belt that
# were on Moscow time, referring to a 1962 map.  By 1989 number of such
# exceptions grew considerably.

# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
# The comments detailing the coverage of each Russian zone are meant to assist
# with maintenance only and represent our best guesses as to which regions
# are covered by each zone.  They are not meant to be taken as an authoritative
# listing.  The region codes listed come from
# https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Federal_subjects_of_Russia&oldid=611810498
# and are used for convenience only; no guarantees are made regarding their
# future stability.  ISO 3166-2:RU codes are also listed for first-level
# divisions where available.

# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
# Europe/Kaliningrad covers...
# 39	RU-KGD	Kaliningrad Oblast

# From Paul Eggert (2019-07-25):
# Although Shanks lists 1945-01-01 as the date for transition from
# +01/+02 to +02/+03, more likely this is a placeholder.  Guess that
# the transition occurred at 1945-04-10 00:00, which is about when
# Königsberg surrendered to Soviet troops.  (Thanks to Alois Triendl.)

# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).

# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
# http://www.rgo.ru/ru/kaliningradskoe-oblastnoe-otdelenie/ob-otdelenii/publikacii/kak-nam-zhilos-bez-letnego-vremeni
# confirms that the 1989 change to Moscow-1 was implemented.
# (The article, though, is misattributed to 1990 while saying that
# summer->winter transition would be done on the 24 of September. But
# 1990-09-24 was Monday, while 1989-09-24 was Sunday as expected.)
# ...
# http://www.kaliningradka.ru/site_pc/cherez/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=40091
# says that Kaliningrad switched to Moscow-1 on 1989-03-26, avoided
# at the last moment switch to Moscow-1 on 1991-03-31, switched to
# Moscow on 1991-11-03, switched to Moscow-1 on 1992-01-19.

Zone Europe/Kaliningrad	 1:22:00 -	LMT	1893 Apr
			 1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr 10
			 2:00	Poland	EE%sT	1946 Apr  7
			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1989 Mar 26  2:00s
			 2:00	Russia	EE%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			 3:00	-	+03	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			 2:00	-	EET


# From Paul Eggert (2016-02-21), per Tim Parenti (2014-07-03) and
# Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
# Europe/Moscow covers...
# 01	RU-AD	Adygea, Republic of
# 05	RU-DA	Dagestan, Republic of
# 06	RU-IN	Ingushetia, Republic of
# 07	RU-KB	Kabardino-Balkar Republic
# 08	RU-KL	Kalmykia, Republic of
# 09	RU-KC	Karachay-Cherkess Republic
# 10	RU-KR	Karelia, Republic of
# 11	RU-KO	Komi Republic
# 12	RU-ME	Mari El Republic
# 13	RU-MO	Mordovia, Republic of
# 15	RU-SE	North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of
# 16	RU-TA	Tatarstan, Republic of
# 20	RU-CE	Chechen Republic
# 21	RU-CU	Chuvash Republic
# 23	RU-KDA	Krasnodar Krai
# 26	RU-STA	Stavropol Krai
# 29	RU-ARK	Arkhangelsk Oblast
# 31	RU-BEL	Belgorod Oblast
# 32	RU-BRY	Bryansk Oblast
# 33	RU-VLA	Vladimir Oblast
# 35	RU-VLG	Vologda Oblast
# 36	RU-VOR	Voronezh Oblast
# 37	RU-IVA	Ivanovo Oblast
# 40	RU-KLU	Kaluga Oblast
# 44	RU-KOS	Kostroma Oblast
# 46	RU-KRS	Kursk Oblast
# 47	RU-LEN	Leningrad Oblast
# 48	RU-LIP	Lipetsk Oblast
# 50	RU-MOS	Moscow Oblast
# 51	RU-MUR	Murmansk Oblast
# 52	RU-NIZ	Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
# 53	RU-NGR	Novgorod Oblast
# 57	RU-ORL	Oryol Oblast
# 58	RU-PNZ	Penza Oblast
# 60	RU-PSK	Pskov Oblast
# 61	RU-ROS	Rostov Oblast
# 62	RU-RYA	Ryazan Oblast
# 67	RU-SMO	Smolensk Oblast
# 68	RU-TAM	Tambov Oblast
# 69	RU-TVE	Tver Oblast
# 71	RU-TUL	Tula Oblast
# 76	RU-YAR	Yaroslavl Oblast
# 77	RU-MOW	Moscow
# 78	RU-SPE	Saint Petersburg
# 83	RU-NEN	Nenets Autonomous Okrug

# From Paul Eggert (2016-08-23):
# The Soviets switched to UT-based time in 1919.  Decree No. 59
# (1919-02-08) http://istmat.info/node/35567 established UT-based time
# zones, and Decree No. 147 (1919-03-29) http://istmat.info/node/35854
# specified a transition date of 1919-07-01, apparently at 00:00 UT.
# No doubt only the Soviet-controlled regions switched on that date;
# later transitions to UT-based time in other parts of Russia are
# taken from what appear to be guesses by Shanks.
# (Thanks to Alexander Belopolsky for pointers to the decrees.)

# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
# 11. Regions-violators, 1981-1982.
# Wikipedia refers to
# http://maps.monetonos.ru/maps/raznoe/Old_Maps/Old_Maps/Articles/022/3_1981.html
# http://besp.narod.ru/nauka_1981_3.htm
#
# The second link provides two articles scanned from the Nauka i Zhizn
# magazine No. 3, 1981 and a scan of the short article attributed to
# the Trud newspaper from February 1982.  The first link provides the
# same Nauka i Zhizn articles converted to the text form (but misses
# time belt changes map).
#
# The second Nauka i Zhizn article says that in addition to
# introduction of summer time on 1981-04-01 there are some time belt
# border changes on 1981-10-01, mostly affecting Nenets Autonomous
# Okrug, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Yakutia, Magadan Oblast and Chukotka
# according to the provided map (colored one).  In addition to that
# "time violators" (regions which were not using rules of the time
# belts in which they were located) would not be moving off the DST on
# 1981-10-01 to restore the decree time usage.  (Komi ASSR was
# supposed to repeat that move in October 1982 to account for the 2
# hour difference.)  Map depicting "time violators" before 1981-10-01
# is also provided.
#
# The article from Trud says that 1981-10-01 changes caused problems
# and some territories would be moved to pre-1981-10-01 time by not
# moving to summer time on 1982-04-01.  Namely: Dagestan,
# Kabardino-Balkar, Kalmyk, Komi, Mari, Mordovian, North Ossetian,
# Tatar, Chechen-Ingush and Chuvash ASSR, Krasnodar and Stavropol
# krais, Arkhangelsk, Vladimir, Vologda, Voronezh, Gorky, Ivanovo,
# Kostroma, Lipetsk, Penza, Rostov, Ryazan, Tambov, Tyumen and
# Yaroslavl oblasts, Nenets and Evenk autonomous okrugs, Khatangsky
# district of Taymyr Autonomous Okrug.  As a result Evenk Autonomous
# Okrug and Khatangsky district of Taymyr Autonomous Okrug would end
# up on Moscow+4, Tyumen Oblast on Moscow+2 and the rest on Moscow
# time.
#
# http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt
# attributes the 1982 changes to the Act of the Council of Ministers
# of the USSR No. 126 from 18.02.1982.  1980-925.txt also adds
# Udmurtia to the list of affected territories and lists Khatangsky
# district separately from Taymyr Autonomous Okrug.  Probably erroneously.
#
# The affected territories are currently listed under Europe/Moscow,
# Asia/Yekaterinburg and Asia/Krasnoyarsk.
#
# 12. Udmurtia
# The fact that Udmurtia is depicted as a violator in the Nauka i
# Zhizn article hints at Izhevsk being on different time from
# Kuybyshev before 1981-10-01. Udmurtia is not mentioned in the 1989 act.
# http://astrozet.net/files/Zones/DOC/RU/1980-925.txt
# implies Udmurtia was on Moscow time after 1982-04-01.
# Wikipedia implies Udmurtia being on Moscow+1 until 1991.
#
# ...
#
# All Russian zones are supposed to have by default a -1 change at
# 1991-03-31 2:00 (cancellation of the decree time in the USSR) and a +1
# change at 1992-01-19 2:00 (restoration of the decree time in Russia).
#
# There were some exceptions, though.
# Wikipedia says newspapers listed Astrakhan, Saratov, Kirov, Volgograd,
# Izhevsk, Grozny, Kazan and Samara as such exceptions for the 1992
# change. (Different newspapers providing different lists. And some
# lists found in the internet are quite wild.)
#
# And apparently some exceptions were reverted in the last moment.
# http://www.kaliningradka.ru/site_pc/cherez/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=40091
# says that Kaliningrad decided not to be an exception 2 days before the
# 1991-03-31 switch and one person at
# https://izhevsk.ru/forum_light_message/50/682597-m8369040.html
# says he remembers that Samara opted out of the 1992-01-19 exception
# 2 days before the switch.
#
#
# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
# Given the above, we appear to be missing some Zone entries for the
# chaotic early 1980s in Russia.  It's not clear what these entries
# should be.  For now, sweep this under the rug and just document the
# time in Moscow.

# From Vladimir Karpinsky (2014-07-08):
# LMT in Moscow (before Jul 3, 1916) is 2:30:17, that was defined by Moscow
# Observatory (coordinates: 55° 45' 29.70", 37° 34' 05.30")....
# LMT in Moscow since Jul 3, 1916 is 2:31:01 as a result of new standard.
# (The info is from the book by Byalokoz ... p. 18.)
# The time in St. Petersburg as capital of Russia was defined by
# Pulkov observatory, near St. Petersburg.  In 1916 LMT Moscow
# was synchronized with LMT St. Petersburg (+30 minutes), (Pulkov observatory
# coordinates: 59° 46' 18.70", 30° 19' 40.70") so 30° 19' 40.70" >
# 2h01m18.7s = 2:01:19.  LMT Moscow = LMT St.Petersburg + 30m 2:01:19 + 0:30 =
# 2:31:19 ...
#
# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):
# Milne does not list Moscow, but suggests that its time might be listed in
# Résumés mensuels et annuels des observations météorologiques (1895).
# Presumably this is OCLC 85825704, a journal published with parallel text in
# Russian and French.  This source has not been located; go with Karpinsky.

Zone Europe/Moscow	 2:30:17 -	LMT	1880
			 2:30:17 -	MMT	1916 Jul  3 # Moscow Mean Time
			 2:31:19 Russia	%s	1919 Jul  1  0:00u
			 3:00	Russia	%s	1921 Oct
			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1922 Oct
			 2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			 2:00	Russia	EE%sT	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			 4:00	-	MSK	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			 3:00	-	MSK


# From Paul Eggert (2016-12-06):
# Europe/Simferopol covers Crimea.

Zone Europe/Simferopol	 2:16:24 -	LMT	1880
			 2:16	-	SMT	1924 May  2 # Simferopol Mean T
			 2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
			 3:00	-	MSK	1941 Nov
			 1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Apr 13
			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990
			 3:00	-	MSK	1990 Jul  1  2:00
			 2:00	-	EET	1992
# Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched
# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
# Shanks (1999) says "date of change uncertain", but implies that it happened
# sometime between the 1994 DST switches.  Shanks & Pottenger simply say
# 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right.  For now, guess it
# changed in May.
			 2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1994 May
# From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
			 3:00	E-Eur	MSK/MSD	1996 Mar 31  0:00s
			 3:00	1:00	MSD	1996 Oct 27  3:00s
# IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
# Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1997
			 3:00	-	MSK	1997 Mar lastSun  1:00u
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17):
# time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014
# https://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html
# From Paul Eggert (2014-03-30):
# Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks
# late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial
# and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about.
			 2:00	EU	EE%sT	2014 Mar 30  2:00
			 4:00	-	MSK	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			 3:00	-	MSK


# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
# Europe/Astrakhan covers:
# 30	RU-AST	Astrakhan Oblast
#
# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-01-12):
# On February 10, 2016 Astrakhan Oblast got approval by the Federation
# Council to change its time zone to UTC+4 (from current UTC+3 Moscow time)....
# This Federal Law shall enter into force on 27 March 2016 at 02:00.
# From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09):
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201602150056

Zone Europe/Astrakhan	 3:12:12 -	LMT	1924 May
			 3:00	-	+03	1930 Jun 21
			 4:00	Russia	+04/+05	1989 Mar 26  2:00s
			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			 4:00	-	+04	1992 Mar 29  2:00s
			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			 4:00	-	+04	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			 3:00	-	+03	2016 Mar 27  2:00s
			 4:00	-	+04

# From Paul Eggert (2016-11-11):
# Europe/Volgograd covers:
# 34	RU-VGG	Volgograd Oblast
# The 1988 transition is from USSR act No. 5 (1988-01-04).

# From Alexander Fetisov (2018-09-20):
# Volgograd region in southern Russia (Europe/Volgograd) change
# timezone from UTC+3 to UTC+4 from 28oct2018.
# http://sozd.parliament.gov.ru/bill/452878-7
#
# From Stepan Golosunov (2018-10-11):
# The law has been published today on
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201810110037

Zone Europe/Volgograd	 2:57:40 -	LMT	1920 Jan  3
			 3:00	-	+03	1930 Jun 21
			 4:00	-	+04	1961 Nov 11
			 4:00	Russia	+04/+05	1988 Mar 27  2:00s
			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			 4:00	-	+04	1992 Mar 29  2:00s
			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			 4:00	-	+04	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			 3:00	-	+03	2018 Oct 28  2:00s
			 4:00	-	+04

# From Paul Eggert (2016-11-11):
# Europe/Saratov covers:
# 64	RU-SAR	Saratov Oblast

# From Yuri Konotopov (2016-11-11):
# Dec 4, 2016 02:00 UTC+3....  Saratov Region's local time will be ... UTC+4.
# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-11):
# ... Byalokoz listed Saratov on 03:04:18.
# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-22):
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201611220031

Zone Europe/Saratov	 3:04:18 -	LMT	1919 Jul  1  0:00u
			 3:00	-	+03	1930 Jun 21
			 4:00	Russia	+04/+05	1988 Mar 27  2:00s
			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			 4:00	-	+04	1992 Mar 29  2:00s
			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			 4:00	-	+04	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			 3:00	-	+03	2016 Dec  4  2:00s
			 4:00	-	+04

# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
# Europe/Kirov covers:
# 43	RU-KIR	Kirov Oblast
# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
#
Zone Europe/Kirov	 3:18:48 -	LMT	1919 Jul  1  0:00u
			 3:00	-	+03	1930 Jun 21
			 4:00	Russia	+04/+05	1989 Mar 26  2:00s
			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			 4:00	-	+04	1992 Mar 29  2:00s
			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			 4:00	-	+04	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			 3:00	-	+03

# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
# Europe/Samara covers...
# 18	RU-UD	Udmurt Republic
# 63	RU-SAM	Samara Oblast

# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
# Byalokoz 1919 says Samara was 3:20:20.
# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).

Zone Europe/Samara	 3:20:20 -	LMT	1919 Jul  1  0:00u
			 3:00	-	+03	1930 Jun 21
			 4:00	-	+04	1935 Jan 27
			 4:00	Russia	+04/+05	1989 Mar 26  2:00s
			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			 2:00	Russia	+02/+03	1991 Sep 29  2:00s
			 3:00	-	+03	1991 Oct 20  3:00
			 4:00	Russia	+04/+05	2010 Mar 28  2:00s
			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			 4:00	-	+04

# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
# Europe/Ulyanovsk covers:
# 73	RU-ULY	Ulyanovsk Oblast

# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-02-17):
# Ulyanovsk ... on their way to change time zones by March 27, 2016 at 2am.
# Ulyanovsk Oblast ... from MSK to MSK+1 (UTC+3 to UTC+4) ...
# 920582-6 ... 02/17/2016 The State Duma passed the bill in the first reading.
# From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09):
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090051

Zone Europe/Ulyanovsk	 3:13:36 -	LMT	1919 Jul  1  0:00u
			 3:00	-	+03	1930 Jun 21
			 4:00	Russia	+04/+05	1989 Mar 26  2:00s
			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			 2:00	Russia	+02/+03	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
			 3:00	Russia	+03/+04	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			 4:00	-	+04	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			 3:00	-	+03	2016 Mar 27  2:00s
			 4:00	-	+04

# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
# Asia/Yekaterinburg covers...
# 02	RU-BA	Bashkortostan, Republic of
# 90	RU-PER	Perm Krai
# 45	RU-KGN	Kurgan Oblast
# 56	RU-ORE	Orenburg Oblast
# 66	RU-SVE	Sverdlovsk Oblast
# 72	RU-TYU	Tyumen Oblast
# 74	RU-CHE	Chelyabinsk Oblast
# 86	RU-KHM	Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra
# 89	RU-YAN	Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
#
# Note: Effective 2005-12-01, (59) Perm Oblast and (81) Komi-Permyak
# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (90, RU-PER) Perm Krai.

# Milne says Yekaterinburg was 4:02:32.9; round to nearest.
# Byalokoz 1919 says its provincial time was based on Perm, at 3:45:05.
# Assume it switched on 1916-07-03, the time of the new standard.
# The 1919 and 1930 transitions are from Shanks.

Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg	 4:02:33 -	LMT	1916 Jul  3
			 3:45:05 -	PMT	1919 Jul 15  4:00
			 4:00	-	+04	1930 Jun 21
			 5:00	Russia	+05/+06	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			 4:00	Russia	+04/+05	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
			 5:00	Russia	+05/+06	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			 6:00	-	+06	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			 5:00	-	+05


# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
# Asia/Omsk covers...
# 55	RU-OMS	Omsk Oblast

# Byalokoz 1919 says Omsk was 4:53:30.

Zone Asia/Omsk		 4:53:30 -	LMT	1919 Nov 14
			 5:00	-	+05	1930 Jun 21
			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			 5:00	Russia	+05/+06	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			 7:00	-	+07	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			 6:00	-	+06

# From Paul Eggert (2016-02-22):
# Asia/Barnaul covers:
# 04	RU-AL	Altai Republic
# 22	RU-ALT	Altai Krai

# Data before 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger.

# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
# Letter of Bank of Russia from 1995-05-25
# http://www.bestpravo.ru/rossijskoje/lj-akty/y3a.htm
# suggests that Altai Republic transitioned to Moscow+3 on
# 1995-05-28.
#
# https://regnum.ru/news/society/1957270.html
# has some historical data for Altai Krai:
# before 1957: west part on UT+6, east on UT+7
# after 1957: UT+7
# since 1995: UT+6
# http://barnaul.rusplt.ru/index/pochemu_altajskij_kraj_okazalsja_v_neprivychnom_chasovom_pojase-17648.html
# confirms that and provides more details including 1995-05-28 transition date.

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-02-17):
# Altai Krai and Altai Republic on their way to change time zones
# by March 27, 2016 at 2am....
# Altai Republic / Gorno-Altaysk MSK+3 to MSK+4 (UTC+6 to UTC+7) ...
# Altai Krai / Barnaul MSK+3 to MSK+4 (UTC+6 to UTC+7)
# From Matt Johnson (2016-03-09):
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090043
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090038

Zone Asia/Barnaul	 5:35:00 -	LMT	1919 Dec 10
			 6:00	-	+06	1930 Jun 21
			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	1995 May 28
			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			 7:00	-	+07	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			 6:00	-	+06	2016 Mar 27  2:00s
			 7:00	-	+07

# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
# Asia/Novosibirsk covers:
# 54	RU-NVS	Novosibirsk Oblast

# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-05-30):
# http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/(Spravka)?OpenAgent&RN=1085784-6
# moves Novosibirsk oblast from UTC+6 to UTC+7.
# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-07-04):
# The law was signed yesterday and published today on
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201607040064

Zone Asia/Novosibirsk	 5:31:40 -	LMT	1919 Dec 14  6:00
			 6:00	-	+06	1930 Jun 21
			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P.
			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			 7:00	-	+07	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			 6:00	-	+06	2016 Jul 24  2:00s
			 7:00	-	+07

# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
# Asia/Tomsk covers:
# 70	RU-TOM	Tomsk Oblast

# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-24):
# Byalokoz listed Tomsk at 5:39:51.

# From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):
# Tomsk is still 4 hours ahead of Moscow.

# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-19):
# http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102075743
# (fifth time belt being UTC+5+1(decree time)
# / UTC+5+1(decree time)+1(summer time)) ...
# Note that time belts (numbered from 2 (Moscow) to 12 according to their
# GMT/UTC offset and having too many exceptions like regions formally
# belonging to one belt but using time from another) were replaced
# with time zones in 2011 with different numbering (there was a
# 2-hour gap between second and third zones in 2011-2014).

# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-04-12):
# http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/(SpravkaNew)?OpenAgent&RN=1006865-6
# This bill was approved in the first reading today.  It moves Tomsk oblast
# from UTC+6 to UTC+7 and is supposed to come into effect on 2016-05-29 at
# 2:00.  The bill needs to be approved in the second and the third readings by
# the State Duma, approved by the Federation Council, signed by the President
# and published to become a law.  Minor changes in the text are to be expected
# before the second reading (references need to be updated to account for the
# recent changes).
#
# Judging by the ultra-short one-day amendments period, recent similar laws,
# the State Duma schedule and the Federation Council schedule
# http://www.duma.gov.ru/legislative/planning/day-shedule/por_vesna_2016/
# http://council.gov.ru/activity/meetings/schedule/63303
# I speculate that the final text of the bill will be proposed tomorrow, the
# bill will be approved in the second and the third readings on Friday,
# approved by the Federation Council on 2016-04-20, signed by the President and
# published as a law around 2016-04-26.

# From Matt Johnson (2016-04-26):
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201604260048

Zone	Asia/Tomsk	 5:39:51 -	LMT	1919 Dec 22
			 6:00	-	+06	1930 Jun 21
			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	2002 May  1  3:00
			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			 7:00	-	+07	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			 6:00	-	+06	2016 May 29  2:00s
			 7:00	-	+07


# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
# Asia/Novokuznetsk covers...
# 42	RU-KEM	Kemerovo Oblast

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13):
# Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on
# March 28, 2010:
# from current Russia Zone 6 - Krasnoyarsk Time Zone (KRA) UTC +0700
# to Russia Zone 5 - Novosibirsk Time Zone (NOV) UTC +0600
#
# This is according to Government of Russia decree No. 740, on September
# 14, 2009 "Application in the territory of the Kemerovo region the Fifth
# time zone." ("Russia Zone 5" or old "USSR Zone 5" is GMT +0600)
#
# Russian Government web site (Russian language)
# http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archive/2009/09/14/991633.htm
# or Russian-English translation by WorldTimeZone.com with reference
# map to local region and new Russia Time Zone map after March 28, 2010
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html
#
# Thus, when Russia will switch to DST on the night of March 28, 2010
# Kemerovo region (Kemerovo oblast') will not change the clock.

# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
# The Kemerovo region will remain at UTC+7 through the 2014-10-26 change, thus
# realigning itself with KRAT.

Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk	 5:48:48 -	LMT	1924 May  1
			 6:00	-	+06	1930 Jun 21
			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	2010 Mar 28  2:00s
			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			 7:00	-	+07

# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
# Asia/Krasnoyarsk covers...
# 17	RU-TY	Tuva Republic
# 19	RU-KK	Khakassia, Republic of
# 24	RU-KYA	Krasnoyarsk Krai
#
# Note: Effective 2007-01-01, (88) Evenk Autonomous Okrug and (84) Taymyr
# Autonomous Okrug were merged into (24, RU-KYA) Krasnoyarsk Krai.

# Byalokoz 1919 says Krasnoyarsk was 6:11:26.

Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk	 6:11:26 -	LMT	1920 Jan  6
			 6:00	-	+06	1930 Jun 21
			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			 6:00	Russia	+06/+07	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			 8:00	-	+08	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			 7:00	-	+07


# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
# Asia/Irkutsk covers...
# 03	RU-BU	Buryatia, Republic of
# 38	RU-IRK	Irkutsk Oblast
#
# Note: Effective 2008-01-01, (85) Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug was
# merged into (38, RU-IRK) Irkutsk Oblast.

# Milne 1899 says Irkutsk was 6:57:15.
# Byalokoz 1919 says Irkutsk was 6:57:05.
# Go with Byalokoz.

Zone Asia/Irkutsk	 6:57:05 -	LMT	1880
			 6:57:05 -	IMT	1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time
			 7:00	-	+07	1930 Jun 21
			 8:00	Russia	+08/+09	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			 7:00	Russia	+07/+08	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
			 8:00	Russia	+08/+09	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			 9:00	-	+09	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			 8:00	-	+08


# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
# Asia/Chita covers...
# 92	RU-ZAB	Zabaykalsky Krai
#
# Note: Effective 2008-03-01, (75) Chita Oblast and (80) Agin-Buryat
# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (92, RU-ZAB) Zabaykalsky Krai.

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-01-02):
# [The] time zone in the Trans-Baikal Territory (Zabaykalsky Krai) -
# Asia/Chita [is changing] from UTC+8 to UTC+9.  Effective date will
# be March 27, 2016 at 2:00am....
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201512300107

Zone Asia/Chita	 7:33:52 -	LMT	1919 Dec 15
			 8:00	-	+08	1930 Jun 21
			 9:00	Russia	+09/+10	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			 8:00	Russia	+08/+09	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
			 9:00	Russia	+09/+10	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			10:00	-	+10	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			 8:00	-	+08	2016 Mar 27  2:00
			 9:00	-	+09


# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
# Asia/Yakutsk covers...
# 28	RU-AMU	Amur Oblast
#
# ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
# 14-02	****	Aldansky District
# 14-04	****	Amginsky District
# 14-05	****	Anabarsky District
# 14-06	****	Bulunsky District
# 14-07	****	Verkhnevilyuysky District
# 14-10	****	Vilyuysky District
# 14-11	****	Gorny District
# 14-12	****	Zhigansky District
# 14-13	****	Kobyaysky District
# 14-14	****	Lensky District
# 14-15	****	Megino-Kangalassky District
# 14-16	****	Mirninsky District
# 14-18	****	Namsky District
# 14-19	****	Neryungrinsky District
# 14-21	****	Nyurbinsky District
# 14-23	****	Olenyoksky District
# 14-24	****	Olyokminsky District
# 14-26	****	Suntarsky District
# 14-27	****	Tattinsky District
# 14-29	****	Ust-Aldansky District
# 14-32	****	Khangalassky District
# 14-33	****	Churapchinsky District
# 14-34	****	Eveno-Bytantaysky National District

# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
# Our commentary seems to have lost mention of (14-19) Neryungrinsky District.
# Since the surrounding districts of Sakha are all YAKT, assume this is, too.
# Also assume its history has been the same as the rest of Asia/Yakutsk.

# Byalokoz 1919 says Yakutsk was 8:38:58.

Zone Asia/Yakutsk	 8:38:58 -	LMT	1919 Dec 15
			 8:00	-	+08	1930 Jun 21
			 9:00	Russia	+09/+10	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			 8:00	Russia	+08/+09	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
			 9:00	Russia	+09/+10	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			10:00	-	+10	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			 9:00	-	+09


# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
# Asia/Vladivostok covers...
# 25	RU-PRI	Primorsky Krai
# 27	RU-KHA	Khabarovsk Krai
# 79	RU-YEV	Jewish Autonomous Oblast
#
# ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
# 14-09	****	Verkhoyansky District
# 14-31	****	Ust-Yansky District

# Milne 1899 says Vladivostok was 8:47:33.5.
# Byalokoz 1919 says Vladivostok was 8:47:31.
# Go with Byalokoz.

Zone Asia/Vladivostok	 8:47:31 -	LMT	1922 Nov 15
			 9:00	-	+09	1930 Jun 21
			10:00	Russia	+10/+11	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			 9:00	Russia	+09/+10	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
			10:00	Russia	+10/+11	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			11:00	-	+11	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			10:00	-	+10


# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
# Asia/Khandyga covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
# 14-28	****	Tomponsky District
# 14-30	****	Ust-Maysky District

# From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
# Tomponskij and Ust'-Majskij switched from Vladivostok time to Yakutsk time
# in 2011.

# From Paul Eggert (2012-11-25):
# Shanks and Pottenger (2003) has Khandyga on Yakutsk time.
# Make a wild guess that it switched to Vladivostok time in 2004.
# This transition is no doubt wrong, but we have no better info.

Zone Asia/Khandyga	 9:02:13 -	LMT	1919 Dec 15
			 8:00	-	+08	1930 Jun 21
			 9:00	Russia	+09/+10	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			 8:00	Russia	+08/+09	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
			 9:00	Russia	+09/+10	2004
			10:00	Russia	+10/+11	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			11:00	-	+11	2011 Sep 13  0:00s # Decree 725?
			10:00	-	+10	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			 9:00	-	+09


# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
# Asia/Sakhalin covers...
# 65	RU-SAK	Sakhalin Oblast
# ...with the exception of:
# 65-11	****	Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)

# From Matt Johnson (2016-02-22):
# Asia/Sakhalin is moving (in entirety) from UTC+10 to UTC+11 ...
# (2016-03-09):
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201603090044

# The Zone name should be Asia/Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long.
Zone Asia/Sakhalin	 9:30:48 -	LMT	1905 Aug 23
			 9:00	-	+09	1945 Aug 25
			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	1991 Mar 31  2:00s # Sakhalin T
			10:00	Russia	+10/+11	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	1997 Mar lastSun  2:00s
			10:00	Russia	+10/+11	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			11:00	-	+11	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			10:00	-	+10	2016 Mar 27  2:00s
			11:00	-	+11


# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
# Asia/Magadan covers...
# 49	RU-MAG	Magadan Oblast

# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
# Magadan Oblast is moving from UTC+12 to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26; however,
# several districts of Sakha Republic as well as Severo-Kurilsky District of
# the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands), represented
# until now by Asia/Magadan, will instead move to UTC+11.  These regions will
# need their own zone.

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-03-27):
# ... draft bill 948300-6 to change its time zone from UTC+10 to UTC+11 ...
# will take ... effect ... on April 24, 2016 at 2 o'clock
#
# From Matt Johnson (2016-04-05):
# ... signed by the President today ...
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201604050038

Zone Asia/Magadan	10:03:12 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			10:00	-	+10	1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			10:00	Russia	+10/+11	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			12:00	-	+12	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			10:00	-	+10	2016 Apr 24  2:00s
			11:00	-	+11


# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
# Asia/Srednekolymsk covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
# 14-01	****	Abyysky District
# 14-03	****	Allaikhovsky District
# 14-08	****	Verkhnekolymsky District
# 14-17	****	Momsky District
# 14-20	****	Nizhnekolymsky District
# 14-25	****	Srednekolymsky District
#
# ...and parts of (65, RU-SAK) Sakhalin Oblast:
# 65-11	****	Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)

# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02):
# Oymyakonsky District of Sakha Republic (represented by Ust-Nera), along with
# most of Sakhalin Oblast (represented by Sakhalin) will be moving to UTC+10 on
# 2014-10-26 to stay aligned with VLAT/SAKT; however, Severo-Kurilsky District
# of the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands, represented by
# Severo-Kurilsk) will remain on UTC+11.

# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
# Assume North Kuril Islands have history like Magadan before 2011-03-27.
# There is a decent chance this is wrong, in which case a new zone
# Asia/Severo-Kurilsk would become necessary.
#
# Srednekolymsk and Zyryanka are the most populous places amongst these
# districts, but have very similar populations.  In fact, Wikipedia currently
# lists them both as having 3528 people, exactly 1668 males and 1860 females
# each!  (Yikes!)
# https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Srednekolymsky_District&oldid=603435276
# https://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Verkhnekolymsky_District&oldid=594378493
# Assume this is a mistake, albeit an amusing one.
#
# Looking at censuses, the populations of the two municipalities seem to have
# fluctuated recently.  Zyryanka was more populous than Srednekolymsk in the
# 1989 and 2002 censuses, but Srednekolymsk was more populous in the most
# recent (2010) census, 3525 to 3170.  (See pages 195 and 197 of
# http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol1/pub-01-05.pdf
# in Russian.)  In addition, Srednekolymsk appears to be a much older
# settlement and the population of Zyryanka seems to be declining.
# Go with Srednekolymsk.

Zone Asia/Srednekolymsk	10:14:52 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			10:00	-	+10	1930 Jun 21
			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			10:00	Russia	+10/+11	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			12:00	-	+12	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			11:00	-	+11


# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
# Asia/Ust-Nera covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
# 14-22	****	Oymyakonsky District

# From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
# Ojmyakonskij [and the Kuril Islands] switched from
# Magadan time to Vladivostok time in 2011.
#
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
# It's unlikely that any of the Kuril Islands were involved in such a switch,
# as the South and Middle Kurils have been on UTC+11 (SAKT) with the rest of
# Sakhalin Oblast since at least 2011-09, and the North Kurils have been on
# UTC+12 since at least then, too.

Zone Asia/Ust-Nera	 9:32:54 -	LMT	1919 Dec 15
			 8:00	-	+08	1930 Jun 21
			 9:00	Russia	+09/+10	1981 Apr  1
			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			10:00	Russia	+10/+11	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			12:00	-	+12	2011 Sep 13  0:00s # Decree 725?
			11:00	-	+11	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
			10:00	-	+10


# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
# Asia/Kamchatka covers...
# 91	RU-KAM	Kamchatka Krai
#
# Note: Effective 2007-07-01, (41) Kamchatka Oblast and (82) Koryak
# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (91, RU-KAM) Kamchatka Krai.

# The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski or perhaps
# Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, but these are too long.
Zone Asia/Kamchatka	10:34:36 -	LMT	1922 Nov 10
			11:00	-	+11	1930 Jun 21
			12:00	Russia	+12/+13	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
			12:00	Russia	+12/+13	2010 Mar 28  2:00s
			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			12:00	-	+12


# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
# Asia/Anadyr covers...
# 87	RU-CHU	Chukotka Autonomous Okrug

Zone Asia/Anadyr	11:49:56 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			12:00	-	+12	1930 Jun 21
			13:00	Russia	+13/+14	1982 Apr  1  0:00s
			12:00	Russia	+12/+13	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
			12:00	Russia	+12/+13	2010 Mar 28  2:00s
			11:00	Russia	+11/+12	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
			12:00	-	+12


# San Marino
# See Europe/Rome.

# Serbia
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Belgrade	1:22:00	-	LMT	1884
			1:00	-	CET	1941 Apr 18 23:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945
			1:00	-	CET	1945 May  8  2:00s
			1:00	1:00	CEST	1945 Sep 16  2:00s
# Metod Koželj reports that the legal date of
# transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
# Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Koželj.
			1:00	-	CET	1982 Nov 27
			1:00	EU	CE%sT
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana	# Slovenia
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica	# Montenegro
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo	# Bosnia and Herzegovina
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje	# North Macedonia
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb	# Croatia

# Slovakia
Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava

# Slovenia
# See Europe/Belgrade.

# Spain
#
# From Paul Eggert (2016-12-14):
#
# The source for Europe/Madrid before 2013 is:
# Planesas P. La hora oficial en España y sus cambios.
# Anuario del Observatorio Astronómico de Madrid (2013, in Spanish).
# http://astronomia.ign.es/rknowsys-theme/images/webAstro/paginas/documentos/Anuario/lahoraoficialenespana.pdf
# As this source says that historical time in the Canaries is obscure,
# and it does not discuss Ceuta, stick with Shanks for now for that data.
#
# In the 1918 and 1919 fallback transitions in Spain, the clock for
# the hour-longer day officially kept going after midnight, so that
# the repeated instances of that day's 00:00 hour were 24 hours apart,
# with a fallback transition from the second occurrence of 00:59... to
# the next day's 00:00.  Our data format cannot represent this
# directly, and instead repeats the first hour of the next day, with a
# fallback transition from the next day's 00:59... to 00:00.

# From Michael Deckers (2016-12-15):
# The Royal Decree of 1900-06-26 quoted by Planesas, online at
# https://www.boe.es/datos/pdfs/BOE//1900/209/A00383-00384.pdf
# says in its article 5 (my translation):
# These dispositions will enter into force beginning with the
# instant at which, according to the time indicated in article 1,
# the 1st day of January of 1901 will begin.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Spain	1918	only	-	Apr	15	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1918	1919	-	Oct	 6	24:00s	0	-
Rule	Spain	1919	only	-	Apr	 6	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1924	only	-	Apr	16	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1924	only	-	Oct	 4	24:00s	0	-
Rule	Spain	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1926	1929	-	Oct	Sat>=1	24:00s	0	-
Rule	Spain	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1928	only	-	Apr	15	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00	1:00	S
# Republican Spain during the civil war; it controlled Madrid until 1939-03-28.
Rule	Spain	1937	only	-	Jun	16	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1937	only	-	Oct	 2	24:00s	0	-
Rule	Spain	1938	only	-	Apr	 2	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1938	only	-	Apr	30	23:00	2:00	M
Rule	Spain	1938	only	-	Oct	 2	24:00	1:00	S
# The following rules are for unified Spain again.
#
# Planesas does not say what happened in Madrid between its fall on
# 1939-03-28 and the Nationalist spring-forward transition on
# 1939-04-15.  For lack of better info, assume Madrid's clocks did not
# change during that period.
#
# The first rule is commented out, as it is redundant for Republican Spain.
#Rule	Spain	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1939	only	-	Oct	 7	24:00s	0	-
Rule	Spain	1942	only	-	May	 2	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1942	only	-	Sep	 1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Spain	1943	1946	-	Apr	Sat>=13	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1943	1944	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Spain	1945	1946	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Spain	1949	only	-	Apr	30	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1949	only	-	Oct	 2	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Spain	1974	1975	-	Apr	Sat>=12	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1974	1975	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Spain	1976	only	-	Mar	27	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1976	1977	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Spain	1977	only	-	Apr	 2	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1978	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 2:00s	0	-
# Nationalist Spain during the civil war
#Rule NatSpain	1937	only	-	May	22	23:00	1:00	S
#Rule NatSpain	1937	1938	-	Oct	Sat>=1	24:00s	0	-
#Rule NatSpain	1938	only	-	Mar	26	23:00	1:00	S
# The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978,
# except with "S" letters.
Rule SpainAfrica 1967	only	-	Jun	 3	12:00	1:00	S
Rule SpainAfrica 1967	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule SpainAfrica 1974	only	-	Jun	24	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule SpainAfrica 1974	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule SpainAfrica 1976	1977	-	May	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule SpainAfrica 1976	only	-	Aug	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule SpainAfrica 1977	only	-	Sep	28	 0:00	0	-
Rule SpainAfrica 1978	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule SpainAfrica 1978	only	-	Aug	 4	 0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Madrid	-0:14:44 -	LMT	1900 Dec 31 23:45:16
			 0:00	Spain	WE%sT	1940 Mar 16 23:00
			 1:00	Spain	CE%sT	1979
			 1:00	EU	CE%sT
Zone	Africa/Ceuta	-0:21:16 -	LMT	1900 Dec 31 23:38:44
			 0:00	-	WET	1918 May  6 23:00
			 0:00	1:00	WEST	1918 Oct  7 23:00
			 0:00	-	WET	1924
			 0:00	Spain	WE%sT	1929
			 0:00	-	WET	1967 # Help zishrink.awk.
			 0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT	1984 Mar 16
			 1:00	-	CET	1986
			 1:00	EU	CE%sT
Zone	Atlantic/Canary	-1:01:36 -	LMT	1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
			-1:00	-	-01	1946 Sep 30  1:00
			 0:00	-	WET	1980 Apr  6  0:00s
			 0:00	1:00	WEST	1980 Sep 28  1:00u
			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
# IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.
# Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.

# Sweden

# From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:
#
# The law "Svensk författningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:
# From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all
# places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at
# three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the
# meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm".  The law is dated 1878-05-31.
#
# The observatory at that time had the meridian 18° 03' 30"
# eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time.  Less 12 minutes gives the
# national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT....
#
# About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk
# författningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning
# of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at
# the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English
# observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west
# from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated
# 1899-06-16.  In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time
# in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT.
#
# 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk författningssamling 1916, no 124") states
# that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is
# pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00....
# Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later".
#
# The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish
# Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are
# not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available
# in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type
# "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click
# the Sök-button).
#
# (2001-05-13):
#
# I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00
# summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show
# 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time.  The article also reports that some
# people thought the switch to standard time would take place already
# at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another
# hour before the event took place.
#
# Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left.

# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Stockholm	1:12:12 -	LMT	1879 Jan  1
			1:00:14	-	SET	1900 Jan  1 # Swedish Time
			1:00	-	CET	1916 May 14 23:00
			1:00	1:00	CEST	1916 Oct  1  1:00
			1:00	-	CET	1980
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Switzerland
# From Howse:
# By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
# and their performance improved enormously.  Communities began to keep
# mean time in preference to apparent time - Geneva from 1780 ....
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# From Whitman (who writes "Midnight?"):
# Rule	Swiss	1940	only	-	Nov	 2	0:00	1:00	S
# Rule	Swiss	1940	only	-	Dec	31	0:00	0	-
# From Shanks & Pottenger:
# Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	May	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	S
# Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	Oct	Sun>=1	0:00	0	-

# From Alois Treindl (2008-12-17):
# I have researched the DST usage in Switzerland during the 1940ies.
#
# As I wrote in an earlier message, I suspected the current tzdata values
# to be wrong. This is now verified.
#
# I have found copies of the original ruling by the Swiss Federal
# government, in 'Eidgenössische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss
# federal law collection)...
#
# DST began on Monday 5 May 1941, 1:00 am by shifting the clocks to 2:00 am
# DST ended on Monday 6 Oct 1941, 2:00 am by shifting the clocks to 1:00 am.
#
# DST began on Monday, 4 May 1942 at 01:00 am
# DST ended on Monday, 5 Oct 1942 at 02:00 am
#
# There was no DST in 1940, I have checked the law collection carefully.
# It is also indicated by the fact that the 1942 entry in the law
# collection points back to 1941 as a reference, but no reference to any
# other years are made.
#
# Newspaper articles I have read in the archives on 6 May 1941 reported
# about the introduction of DST (Sommerzeit in German) during the previous
# night as an absolute novelty, because this was the first time that such
# a thing had happened in Switzerland.
#
# I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traité de
# l'heure dans le monde) claims that Switzerland had DST in 1916. This is
# false, no official document could be found. Probably Gabriel got misled
# by references to Germany, which introduced DST in 1916 for the first time.
#
# The tzdata rules for Switzerland must be changed to:
# Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Mon>=1  1:00    1:00    S
# Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Mon>=1  2:00    0       -
#
# The 1940 rules must be deleted.
#
# One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for
# most users of tzdata: The [Europe/Zurich zone] ...
# describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of
# the Canton de Genève (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneva did not
# follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time.
# To represent this, an extra zone would be needed.
#
# From Alois Treindl (2013-09-11):
# The Federal regulations say
# https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20071096/index.html
# ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7° 26' 22.50".
# Expressed in time, it is 0h29m45.5s.

# From Pierre-Yves Berger (2013-09-11):
# the "Circulaire du conseil fédéral" (December 11 1893)
# http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353
# clearly states that the [1894-06-01] change should be done at midnight
# but if no one is present after 11 at night, could be postponed until one
# hour before the beginning of service.

# From Paul Eggert (2013-09-11):
# Round BMT to the nearest even second, 0:29:46.
#
# We can find no reliable source for Shanks's assertion that all of Switzerland
# except Geneva switched to Bern Mean Time at 00:00 on 1848-09-12.  This book:
#
#	Jakob Messerli. Gleichmässig, pünktlich, schnell. Zeiteinteilung und
#	Zeitgebrauch in der Schweiz im 19. Jahrhundert. Chronos, Zurich 1995,
#	ISBN 3-905311-68-2, OCLC 717570797.
#
# suggests that the transition was more gradual, and that the Swiss did not
# agree about civil time during the transition.  The timekeeping it gives the
# most detail for is postal and telegraph time: here, federal legislation (the
# "Bundesgesetz über die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on
# 1851-11-23, and an official implementation notice was published 1853-07-16
# (Bundesblatt 1853, Bd. II, S. 859).  On p 72 Messerli writes that in
# practice since July 1853 Bernese time was used in "all postal and telegraph
# offices in Switzerland from Geneva to St. Gallen and Basel to Chiasso"
# (Google translation).  For now, model this transition as occurring on
# 1853-07-16, though it probably occurred at some other date in Zurich, and
# legal civil time probably changed at still some other transition date.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	May	Mon>=1	1:00	1:00	S
Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	Oct	Mon>=1	2:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Zurich	0:34:08 -	LMT	1853 Jul 16 # See above comment.
			0:29:46	-	BMT	1894 Jun    # Bern Mean Time
			1:00	Swiss	CE%sT	1981
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Turkey

# From Alois Treindl (2019-08-12):
# http://www.astrolojidergisi.com/yazsaati.htm has researched the time zone
# history of Turkey, based on newspaper archives and official documents.
# From Paul Eggert (2019-08-28):
# That source (Oya Vulaş, "Türkiye'de Yaz Saati Uygulamaları")
# is used for 1940/1972, where it seems more reliable than our other
# sources.

# From Kıvanç Yazan (2019-08-12):
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/14539.pdf#page=24
# 1973-06-03 01:00 -> 02:00, 1973-11-04 02:00 -> 01:00
#
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/14829.pdf#page=1
# 1974-03-31 02:00 -> 03:00, 1974-11-03 02:00 -> 01:00
#
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/15161.pdf#page=1
# 1975-03-22 02:00 -> 03:00, 1975-11-02 02:00 -> 01:00
#
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/15535_1.pdf#page=1
# 1976-03-21 02:00 -> 03:00, 1976-10-31 02:00 -> 01:00
#
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/15778.pdf#page=5
# 1977-04-03 02:00 -> 03:00, 1977-10-16 02:00 -> 01:00,
# 1978-04-02 02:00 -> 03:00 (not applied, see below)
# 1978-10-15 02:00 -> 01:00 (not applied, see below)
# 1979-04-01 02:00 -> 03:00 (not applied, see below)
# 1979-10-14 02:00 -> 01:00 (not applied, see below)
#
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/16245.pdf#page=17
# This cancels the previous decision, and repeats it only for 1978.
# 1978-04-02 02:00 -> 03:00, 1978-10-15 02:00 -> 01:00
# (not applied due to standard TZ change below)
#
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/16331.pdf#page=3
# This decision changes the default longitude for Turkish time zone from 30
# degrees East to 45 degrees East.  This means a standard TZ change, from +2
# to +3.  This is published & applied on 1978-06-29.  At that time, Turkey was
# already on summer time (already on 45E).  Hence, this new law just meant an
# "continuous summer time".  Note that this was reversed in a few years.
#
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/18119_1.pdf#page=1
# 1983-07-31 02:00 -> 03:00 (note that this jumps TZ to +4)
# 1983-10-02 02:00 -> 01:00 (back to +3)
#
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/18561.pdf (page 1 and 34)
# At this time, Turkey is still on +3 with no spring-forward on early
# 1984.  This decision is published on 10/31/1984.  Page 1 declares
# the decision of reverting the "default longitude change".  So the
# standard time should go back to +3 (30E).  And page 34 explains when
# that will happen: 1984-11-01 02:00 -> 01:00.  You can think of this
# as "end of continuous summer time, change of standard time zone".
#
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/18713.pdf#page=1
# 1985-04-20 01:00 -> 02:00, 1985-09-28 02:00 -> 01:00

# From Kıvanç Yazan (2016-09-25):
# 1) For 1986-2006, DST started at 01:00 local and ended at 02:00 local, with
#    no exceptions.
# 2) 1994's lastSun was overridden with Mar 20 ...
# Here are official papers:
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19032.pdf#page=2 for 1986
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19400.pdf#page=4 for 1987
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19752.pdf#page=15 for 1988
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20102.pdf#page=6 for 1989
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20464.pdf#page=1 for 1990 - 1992
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21531.pdf#page=15 for 1993 - 1995
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21879.pdf#page=1 for overriding 1994
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/22588.pdf#page=1 for 1996, 1997
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/23286.pdf#page=10 for 1998 - 2000
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2001/03/20010324.htm#2  - for 2001
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2002/03/20020316.htm#2  - for 2002-2006
# From Paul Eggert (2016-09-25):
# Prefer the above sources to Shanks & Pottenger for timestamps after 1985.

# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-09):
# Starting 2007 though, it seems that they are adopting EU's 1:00 UTC
# start/end time, according to the following page (2007-03-07):
# http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/402029.asp
# The official document is located here - it is in Turkish...:
# http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/03/20070307-7.htm
# I was able to locate the following seemingly official document
# (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006:
# http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm

# From Gökdeniz Karadağ (2011-03-10):
# According to the articles linked below, Turkey will change into summer
# time zone (GMT+3) on March 28, 2011 at 3:00 a.m. instead of March 27.
# This change is due to a nationwide exam on 27th.
# https://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872
# Turkish:
# https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/yaz-saati-uygulamasi-bir-gun-ileri-alindi-17230464

# From Faruk Pasin (2014-02-14):
# The DST for Turkey has been changed for this year because of the
# Turkish Local election....
# http://www.sabah.com.tr/Ekonomi/2014/02/12/yaz-saatinde-onemli-degisiklik
# ... so Turkey will move clocks forward one hour on March 31 at 3:00 a.m.
# From Randal L. Schwartz (2014-04-15):
# Having landed on a flight from the states to Istanbul (via AMS) on March 31,
# I can tell you that NOBODY (even the airlines) respected this timezone DST
# change delay.  Maybe the word just didn't get out in time.
# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-15):
# The press reported massive confusion, as election officials obeyed the rule
# change but cell phones (and airline baggage systems) did not.  See:
# Kostidis M. Eventful elections in Turkey. Balkan News Agency
# http://www.balkaneu.com/eventful-elections-turkey/ 2014-03-30.
# I guess the best we can do is document the official time.

# From Fatih (2015-09-29):
# It's officially announced now by the Ministry of Energy.
# Turkey delays winter time to 8th of November 04:00
# http://www.aa.com.tr/tr/turkiye/yaz-saati-uygulamasi-8-kasimda-sona-erecek/362217
#
# From BBC News (2015-10-25):
# Confused Turks are asking "what's the time?" after automatic clocks defied a
# government decision ... "For the next two weeks #Turkey is on EEST... Erdogan
# Engineered Standard Time," said Twitter user @aysekarahasan.
# http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-34631326

# From Burak AYDIN (2016-09-08):
# Turkey will stay in Daylight Saving Time even in winter....
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2016/09/20160908-2.pdf
#
# From Paul Eggert (2016-09-07):
# The change is permanent, so this is the new standard time in Turkey.
# It takes effect today, which is not much notice.

# From Kıvanç Yazan (2017-10-28):
# Turkey will go back to Daylight Saving Time starting 2018-10.
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2017/10/20171028-5.pdf
#
# From Even Scharning (2017-11-08):
# ... today it was announced that the DST will become "continuous":
# http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/son-dakika-yaz-saati-uygulamasi-surekli-hale-geldi-40637482
# From Paul Eggert (2017-11-08):
# Although Google Translate misfires on that source, it looks like
# Turkey reversed last month's decision, and so will stay at +03.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Turkey	1916	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1920	only	-	Mar	28	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1920	only	-	Oct	25	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1921	only	-	Apr	 3	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1921	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1922	only	-	Mar	26	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1922	only	-	Oct	 8	0:00	0	-
# Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925;
# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule	Turkey	1924	only	-	May	13	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1924	1925	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1925	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1940	only	-	Jul	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1940	only	-	Oct	 6	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1940	only	-	Dec	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1941	only	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1942	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1945	only	-	Oct	 8	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1946	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1946	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1947	1948	-	Apr	Sun>=16	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1947	1951	-	Oct	Sun>=2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1949	only	-	Apr	10	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1950	only	-	Apr	16	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1951	only	-	Apr	22	0:00	1:00	S
# DST for 15 months; unusual but we'll let it pass.
Rule	Turkey	1962	only	-	Jul	15	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1963	only	-	Oct	30	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1964	only	-	May	15	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1964	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1973	only	-	Jun	 3	1:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1973	1976	-	Oct	Sun>=31	2:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1974	only	-	Mar	31	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1975	only	-	Mar	22	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1976	only	-	Mar	21	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1977	1978	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1977	1978	-	Oct	Sun>=15	2:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1978	only	-	Jun	29	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1983	only	-	Jul	31	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1983	only	-	Oct	 2	2:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1985	only	-	Apr	20	1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1985	only	-	Sep	28	1:00s	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1986	1993	-	Mar	lastSun	1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1986	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1994	only	-	Mar	20	1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1995	2006	-	Mar	lastSun	1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1996	2006	-	Oct	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Istanbul	1:55:52 -	LMT	1880
			1:56:56	-	IMT	1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?
			2:00	Turkey	EE%sT	1978 Jun 29
			3:00	Turkey	+03/+04	1984 Nov  1  2:00
			2:00	Turkey	EE%sT	2007
			2:00	EU	EE%sT	2011 Mar 27  1:00u
			2:00	-	EET	2011 Mar 28  1:00u
			2:00	EU	EE%sT	2014 Mar 30  1:00u
			2:00	-	EET	2014 Mar 31  1:00u
			2:00	EU	EE%sT	2015 Oct 25  1:00u
			2:00	1:00	EEST	2015 Nov  8  1:00u
			2:00	EU	EE%sT	2016 Sep  7
			3:00	-	+03
Link	Europe/Istanbul	Asia/Istanbul	# Istanbul is in both continents.

# Ukraine
#
# From Igor Karpov, who works for the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice,
# via Garrett Wollman (2003-01-27):
# BTW, I've found the official document on this matter. It's government
# regulations No. 509, May 13, 1996. In my poor translation it says:
# "Time in Ukraine is set to second timezone (Kiev time). Each last Sunday
# of March at 3am the time is changing to 4am and each last Sunday of
# October the time at 4am is changing to 3am"

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-20):
# On September 20, 2011 the deputies of the Verkhovna Rada agreed to
# abolish the transfer clock to winter time.
#
# Bill No. 8330 of MP from the Party of Regions Oleg Nadoshi got
# approval from 266 deputies.
#
# Ukraine abolishes transfer back to the winter time (in Russian)
# http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/
#
# The Ukrainians will no longer change the clock (in Russian)
# http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14290482.html
#
# Deputies cancelled the winter time (in Russian)
# https://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/
#
# From Philip Pizzey (2011-10-18):
# Today my Ukrainian colleagues have informed me that the
# Ukrainian parliament have decided that they will go to winter
# time this year after all.
#
# From Udo Schwedt (2011-10-18):
# As far as I understand, the recent change to the Ukrainian time zone
# (Europe/Kiev) to introduce permanent daylight saving time (similar
# to Russia) was reverted today:
# http://portal.rada.gov.ua/rada/control/en/publish/article/info_left?art_id=287324&cat_id=105995
#
# Also reported by Alexander Bokovoy (2011-10-18) who also noted:
# The law documents themselves are at
# http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb_n/webproc4_1?id=&pf3511=41484

# From Vladimir in Moscow via Alois Treindl re Kiev time 1991/2 (2014-02-28):
# First in Ukraine they changed Time zone from UTC+3 to UTC+2 with DST:
#       03 25 1990 02:00 -03.00 1       Time Zone 3 with DST
#       07 01 1990 02:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
# * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 18.06.1990, No. 134.
# http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/T001500.html
#
# They did not end DST in September, 1990 (according to the law,
# "summer time" was still in action):
#       09 30 1990 03:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
# * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 21.09.1990, No. 272.
# http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/KP900272.html
#
# Again no change in March, 1991 ("summer time" in action):
#       03 31 1991 02:00 -02.00 1       Time Zone 2 with DST
#
# DST ended in September 1991 ("summer time" ended):
#       09 29 1991 03:00 -02.00 0       Time Zone 2, no DST
# * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 25.09.1991, No. 225.
# http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_21/pg_iwgdoc.htm
# This is an answer.
#
# Since 1992 they had normal DST procedure:
#       03 29 1992 02:00 -02.00 1       DST started
#       09 27 1992 03:00 -02.00 0       DST ended
# * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 20.03.1992, No. 139.
# http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_8u/pg_grcasa.htm

# From Paul Eggert (2018-10-03):
# As is usual in tzdb, Ukrainian zones use the most common English spellings.
# For example, tzdb uses Europe/Kiev, as "Kiev" is the most common spelling in
# English for Ukraine's capital, even though it is certainly wrong as a
# transliteration of the Ukrainian "Київ".  This is similar to tzdb's use of
# Europe/Prague, which is certainly wrong as a transliteration of the Czech
# "Praha".  ("Kiev" came from old Slavic via Russian to English, and "Prague"
# came from old Slavic via French to English, so the two cases have something
# in common.)  Admittedly English-language spelling of Ukrainian names is
# controversial, and some day "Kyiv" may become substantially more popular in
# English; in the meantime, stick with the traditional English "Kiev" as that
# means less disruption for our users.

# Zone	NAME		STDOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
# This represents most of Ukraine.  See above for the spelling of "Kiev".
Zone Europe/Kiev	2:02:04 -	LMT	1880
			2:02:04	-	KMT	1924 May  2 # Kiev Mean Time
			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Sep 20
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1943 Nov  6
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990 Jul  1  2:00
			2:00	1:00	EEST	1991 Sep 29  3:00
			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1995
			2:00	EU	EE%sT
# Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991.
# "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Rusyn/Ukrainian pronunciation, but
# "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.
Zone Europe/Uzhgorod	1:29:12 -	LMT	1890 Oct
			1:00	-	CET	1940
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Oct
			1:00	1:00	CEST	1944 Oct 26
			1:00	-	CET	1945 Jun 29
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990
			3:00	-	MSK	1990 Jul  1  2:00
			1:00	-	CET	1991 Mar 31  3:00
			2:00	-	EET	1992
			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1995
			2:00	EU	EE%sT
# Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991.
# "Zaporizhia" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
# "Zaporozh'ye" is more common in English.  Use the common English
# spelling, except omit the apostrophe as it is not allowed in
# portable Posix file names.
Zone Europe/Zaporozhye	2:20:40 -	LMT	1880
			2:20	-	+0220	1924 May  2
			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Aug 25
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1943 Oct 25
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31  2:00
			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1995
			2:00	EU	EE%sT

# Vatican City
# See Europe/Rome.

###############################################################################

# One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from
# the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986.
# The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else.
#
# According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but
# uses the WE DST rules.  The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules.
# Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at
# 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST).  It also claims that Turkey
# switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time
# and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST)

# ...
# Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100
# From: Tom Hofmann
# ...
#
# ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
# most European countries started DST.  Before that year, only
# a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according
# to own national rules.  In 1981, however, DST started on
# 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following
# years...
# But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions
# than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST
# one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep
# lastSun' in 1981 - I don't know how they handle now.
#
# Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the
# Soviet Union (as far as I know).
#
# Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,
# 4002 Basle, Switzerland
# ...

# ...
# Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100
# From: Dik T. Winter
# ...
#
# The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct.
# After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information
# about DST in Europe.  I was able to find all from about 1969.
#
# ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on
# first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September...
# In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that
# the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March.  And from 1982
# the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in
# the Sov[i]et Union.  In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch
# dates...
#
# It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g.
# Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST...
# Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not
# all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations
# occurred, though not since 1982 I believe.  Another note: it is always
# assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the
# case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours
# in advance of normal time.
#
# ...
# dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland
# ...

# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
# ...
# Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates).
# Since 1978.  Change at midnight.
# ...
# Monaco: has same DST as France.
# ...
europe (176,194 bytes)

Malcolm_Ferguson

2020-04-21 07:55

reporter   ~0003808

There's some fascinating history in that file :) This appears to resolve this issue for me and I will attempt to use the file going forward. Given the frequency of timezone data updates my Garmin watch recieves, it might indeed be a good idea to update this data in Geosetter.

Thanks for help resolving this.

Issue History

Date Modified Username Field Change
2020-04-09 06:32 Malcolm_Ferguson New Issue
2020-04-09 06:32 Malcolm_Ferguson File Added: Tomsk timezone error.png
2020-04-09 20:23 heiko Note Added: 0003800
2020-04-16 23:44 heiko Note Added: 0003803
2020-04-19 15:57 Malcolm_Ferguson File Added: Tomsk Timezone Error-2.png
2020-04-19 15:57 Malcolm_Ferguson Note Added: 0003806
2020-04-20 22:33 heiko File Added: europe
2020-04-20 22:33 heiko Note Added: 0003807
2020-04-21 07:55 Malcolm_Ferguson Note Added: 0003808